String Parsing, Serialization, and Formatting in ECMAScript Temporal

Table of Contents

Machine-readable vs. human-readable string formats

There are two kinds of string representations for ECMAScript Temporal objects:

Temporal objects can be parsed from machine-readable formats and can also be serialized ("round-tripped") into these formats.

zdt = Temporal.ZonedDateTime.from('2022-02-28T11:06:00.092121729+08:00[Asia/Shanghai][u-ca=chinese]');
  // => "2022-02-28T11:06:00.092121729+08:00[Asia/Shanghai][u-ca=chinese]"

date = Temporal.PlainDate.from('2022-02-28');
  // => "2022-02-28"

duration = Temporal.Duration.from('P1DT12H30M');
  // => "P1DT12H30M"

Temporal can also produce localized, human-readable string representations.

zdt = Temporal.ZonedDateTime.from('2022-02-28T11:06:00.092121729+08:00[Asia/Shanghai][u-ca=chinese]');
zdt.toLocaleString('zh-CN', { calendar: 'chinese' });
  // => "正月28日 GMT+8 11:06:00"

// `toLocaleString` on `Temporal` objects works the same as `Intl.DateTimeFormat#format`
zdt = Temporal.ZonedDateTime.from('2022-02-28T11:06:00.092121729+08:00[Asia/Shanghai][u-ca=chinese]');
new Intl.DateTimeFormat('zh-CN', { calendar: 'chinese' }).format(zdt);
  // => "正月28日 GMT+8 11:06:00"

zdt = zdt.withCalendar('gregory');
  .toLocaleString('en-US', { calendar: 'gregory' });
  // => "2/27/2022, 7:06:00 PM PST"

  .toLocaleString('fr-FR', { calendar: 'gregory', dateStyle: 'long' });
  // => "28 février 2022"

  .subtract({ years: 3000 })
  .toLocaleString('fr-FR', { calendar: 'gregory', dateStyle: 'long' });
  // => "28 février 2022"

  .subtract({ years: 3000 })
  .toLocaleString('en-US', { calendar: 'gregory', era: 'short', year: 'numeric', month: 'long', day: 'numeric' });
  // => "February 27, 979 BC"

Unlike machine-readable strings, human-readable strings cannot be parsed by Temporal. Why not?

Machine-readable string persistence overview

All Temporal types have a machine-readable string representation for persistence and interoperability. These representations are based on existing industry standards, with a few standards-track extensions noted below.

Industry standards for machine-readable date/time strings

ISO-8601 and RFC 3339 are the industry standards for machine-readable serialization of dates and times. Temporal's string serialization is based on these existing standards, with exception of IANA Time Zones (like Europe/Paris) and non-Gregorian calendars like Hebrew or Chinese. These standard formats also match the formats accepted by the HTML <time> element. For IANA time zones and non-Gregorian calendars, a standards-track extension to RFC 3339 is being worked on as part of the IETF SEDATE working group.

Because neither ISO 8601 nor RFC 3339 include a standardized month/day format (for birthdays, holidays, etc.), Temporal relies on the HTML standard's yearless date format which accepts strings like 12-25 and --12-25. Using the HTML standard format also ensures that Temporal.PlainMonthDay can be used as input to the HTML <time> element.

The sections below explain the proposed extensions to RFC 3339 for time zones and calendars.

IANA time zone names

For many years, a popular way to combine a timestamp and a time zone into a single string has been the format used in the Java standard library. Before this format was adopted by Java in JSR-310 in 2014, other open-source libraries like Joda Time (which JSR-310 was based on) used the same format. For example:


Because of this format's long-term industry adoption, it was chosen for use in ECMAScript Temporal for both input and output.

Although neither ISO-8601 nor RFC 3339 specifications currently use this syntax, it's on a standards track led by the IETF SEDATE working group which includes ECMAScript Temporal champions as well as other industry participants.

The time zone ID itself follows the rules of the time zone database, usually called TZDB.

Use only valid POSIX file name components (i.e., the parts of names other than '/'). Do not use the file name components '.' and '..'. Within a file name component, use only ASCII letters, '.', '-' and '_'. Do not use digits, as that might create an ambiguity with POSIX TZ strings. A file name component must not exceed 14 characters or start with '-'.

For more about TZDB, see the Temporal.TimeZone documentation or the TZDB documentation.

Calendar systems

In order to achieve round-trip persistence for Temporal objects using non-ISO calendar systems, a calendar system identifier can be added.

Therefore, we are proposing the following extension: Calendar-specific dates are expressed as their equivalent date in the ISO calendar system, with a suffix signifying the calendar system into which the ISO date should be converted when read by a computer.

For example, when parsed, the following string would represent the date 28 Iyar 5780 in the Hebrew calendar:


The syntax of the calendar suffix is currently on a standards track led by the IETF SEDATE working group.

The calendar identifiers are defined by CLDR as a sequence of 3-8 character BCP47 subtags. Usually there's only one subtag in the sequence, although some calendars may use more. The list of calendar identifiers currently supported by CLDR is:

Note that extensions can more than double the size of a date/time string. For example, here's a long string containing both an IANA time zone name and a calendar system:


Calendar-dependent Temporal.PlainYearMonth and Temporal.PlainMonthDay

Many Temporal types include a calendar property that controls the value of the year, month and day properties as well as other calendar-related behavior like adding months or calculating the number of number of days in a month. But regardless of the calendar used, the string representation always uses the ISO 8601 calendar year, month, and day. Doing this allows easier sorting and comparison of strings across different calendar systems, and it ensures better compatibility with other systems that are not aware of other calendar systems.

For example, the following strings represent the same day in different calendar systems.

function localizedDate(s) {
  date = Temporal.PlainDate.from(s);
  calendar = Temporal.Calendar.from(s);
  return date.toLocaleString('en-US', { calendar, dateStyle: 'long' });
localizedDate('2020-04-25[u-ca=hebrew]'); // => "1 Iyar 5780"
localizedDate('2020-04-25[u-ca=islamic]'); // => "Ramadan 2, 1441 AH"
localizedDate('2020-04-25'); // => "April 25, 2020" (ISO 8601 calendar is default)

In the ISO 8601 calendar, the string representation of Temporal.PlainYearMonth omits the day (e.g. "2020-04") and the Temporal.PlainMonthDay representation omits the year (e.g. "04-25"). But in other calendar systems, the year, month, and day are all needed in order to unambiguously determine the correct year and month (for Temporal.PlainYearMonth) or month and day (for Temporal.PlainMonthDay) in that calendar. Therefore, the string representation of Temporal.PlainYearMonth and Temporal.PlainMonthDay in non-ISO calendar systems matches the representation of Temporal.PlainDate. For example:

function localizedMonthDay(s) {
  monthDay = Temporal.PlainMonthDay.from(s);
  calendar = Temporal.Calendar.from(s);
  return monthDay.toLocaleString('en-US', { calendar, month: 'long', day: 'numeric' });
localizedMonthDay('2020-04-25[u-ca=hebrew]'); // => "1 Iyar"
localizedMonthDay('2020-04-25[u-ca=islamic]'); // => "Ramadan 2"
localizedMonthDay('04-25'); // => "April 25"

String parsing and formatting FAQ

What is the right Temporal type to use for parsing a particular string?

To determine the Temporal class that should be used to parse a string, it's important to pick the type whose data model matches the data in the string.

Is there one function I can call to parse any string into the appropriate Temporal type?

No. To parse a string into a Temporal type, you must know ahead of time what type to use, because the same string can be used to parse many different Temporal types. For example, 2020-04-25[u-ca=hebrew] can be successfully parsed by Temporal.PlainDate.from, Temporal.PlainMonthDay.from, Temporal.PlainYearMonth.from, or even Temporal.PlainDateTime.from. This ambiguity requires choosing a Temporal type before parsing.

When should I use toString vs. toLocaleString when converting Temporal types to a string?

To display human-readable information to non-technical end users, use toLocaleString(). To store data that can later be read by computers, use toString().

Why are IANA time zones needed? Why can't I just use timestamps like 2020-01-01T00:00-08:00?

Timestamps are good if you want to know the specific instant where something took place. However, they're not good for:

For these reasons, it's helpful to capture and store the time zone (not just the offset) when strings are serialized.

Why is a bracketed time zone annotation required to parse a string into a Temporal.ZonedDateTime object?

To construct a Temporal.ZonedDateTime, three pieces of information are required:

A string like "2022-02-28T03:06:00Z" or "2022-02-28T03:06:00+02:00" lacks the time zone annotation (e.g. [America/Los_Angeles]), so it will throw an exception when parsed by Temporal.ZonedDateTime.from.

A reasonable question is why Temporal.ZonedDateTime doesn't automatically use the offset (e.g. Z or +02:00) if there's no time zone suffix. The answer is that Temporal.ZonedDateTime is designed to ensure DST-safe arithmetic, which in turn requires knowing when DST starts or stops in a particular time zone. Here's a short example illustrating why this matters.

function oneDayLaterInstant(s) {
  return Temporal.ZonedDateTime.from(s).add({ days: 1 }).toInstant();
  // => 2021-03-28T22:00:00Z
  // => 2021-03-28T23:00:00Z (one hour later!)
  // throws, because there's no time zone suffix

The calls above use the same timestamp, but return a different result when called with a day that happens to contain a DST transition. As the second call above shows, if you really do want to do arithmetic or otherwise use Temporal.ZonedDateTime functionality, it can be done using an offset time zone suffix like [+01:00].

But if there's no time zone suffix, then Temporal.ZonedDateTime.from will throw an exception. This exception has the effect of forcing developers to provide the time zone in a different way, e.g. by parsing the string into a Temporal.Instant and using its toZonedDateTimeISO() method to convert to Temporal.ZonedDateTime. This is a good outcome because whether the time zone is part of the string or called separately, requiring it enables developers to know that any Temporal.ZonedDateTime APIs will always return time-zone-aware results. If timezone-aware results are not needed, then use another type like Temporal.Instant.

How can I parse the offset of timestamp strings like 2022-02-28T03:06:00+02:00 or 2022-02-28T03:06:00Z?

Timestamp strings like 2022-02-28T03:06:00+02:00 or 2022-02-28T03:06:00Z are normally parsed by Temporal.Instant. Because the data model of Temporal.Instant is limited to the number of nanoseconds since January 1, 1970 UTC), the offset is not stored when parsing a string into a Temporal.Instant. If the offset of the string is needed, use Temporal.TimeZone.from:

s = `2022-02-28T03:06:00Z`;
offset = Temporal.TimeZone.from(s); // => UTC

s = `2022-02-28T03:06:00+02:00`;
offset = Temporal.TimeZone.from(s); // => +02:00

Why can't I parse a UTC "Z" string using Temporal.PlainXxx types?

One of the most common date/time-related bugs is treating a UTC timestamp as if it were a local date and time. For example, 2022-02-01T00:00Z is 1:00AM on February 1 in Paris but 7:00PM on January 31 in New York. If a program assumes that 2022-02-01 is a local-timezone date, then that program will be wrong in half the world.

Another, more subtle version of this bug is when an external data source switches its format for storing or sending timestamps. For example, imagine a remote web service or database that provides a date/time string in this format: 2022-01-31T19:00-05:00. Developers can safely assume that 2022-01-31T19:00 is the local time in the time zone where this data was recorded, and so can parse this string with Temporal.PlainDate.from, Temporal.PlainTime.from, etc. But now assume that the remote service or database is refactored to emit strings using a "Z" suffix like 2022-02-01T00:00Z. Code that only parses these strings into a Temporal.Instant won't break because the timestamps represent the same instant. But code using Temporal.PlainDate.from will encounter off-by-one-day bugs, which can be maddening to track down because they're intermittent (only show up in some time zones and only at some times of day) and aren't attributable to code changes in the client app.

To prevent these types of bugs, an exception will be thrown if a Temporal.PlainXxx type is asked to parse a timestamp string with a Z suffix.

In the unusual case where I want to get the calendar/clock units from a UTC "Z" string, how can I do that?

In rare cases, developers may want to extract the date and time units from a timestamp string that uses a Z suffix. The answer above explains why this is usually a bad idea, but sometimes it's needed. For example, code that stores a new log file every day may need to flip over to a new file at midnight UTC. To handle cases like this, first parse the string into a Temporal.Instant and then convert to a Temporal.ZonedDateTime using the UTC time zone.

s = `2022-02-01T00:00Z`;
Temporal.PlainDate.from(s); // throws
zdt = Temporal.Instant.from(s).toZonedDateTimeISO(s).toPlainDate(); // => 2022-02-01

Can I parse a subset of data in a string?

Yes! Temporal parsing methods accept strings that have more information than the type needs. Information not needed for that type's data model is ignored. This works for all Temporal.PlainXxx types, Temporal.Instant, and even Temporal.TimeZone and Temporal.Calendar.

s = '2022-02-28T11:06:00.092121729+08:00[Asia/Shanghai]';
Temporal.ZonedDateTime.from(s); // => 2022-02-28T11:06:00.092121729+08:00[Asia/Shanghai]
Temporal.PlainTime.from(s); // => 11:06:00.092121729
Temporal.PlainDate.from(s); // => 2022-02-28
Temporal.PlainDateTime.from(s); // => 2022-02-28T11:06:00.092121729
Temporal.PlainYearMonth.from(s); // => 2022-02
Temporal.PlainMonthDay.from(s); // => 02-28
Temporal.Instant.from(s); // => 2022-02-28T03:06:00.092121729Z
Temporal.TimeZone.from(s); // => Asia/Shanghai
Temporal.Calendar.from(s); // => iso8601 (the default calendar when parsing strings)

Why doesn't Temporal support parsing localized formats like MM/DD/YY?

Parsing of localized date/time formats is notoriously difficult and brittle. For example, here's what MDN has to say about Date.parse

It is not recommended to use Date.parse as until ES5, parsing of strings was entirely implementation dependent. There are still many differences in how different hosts parse date strings, therefore date strings should be manually parsed (a library can help if many different formats are to be accommodated).

Because of the complexity involved in standardizing and implementing localized date parsing, TC39 (the standards committee responsible for ECMAScript) has learned from the painful experience of Date.parse that localized parsing is best left to userland libraries, not platform specifications.

For more background, see this discussion about localized parsing in Intl.DateTimeFormat.

For future proposals that extend the Temporal API, there's a feature request for a limited form of parsing. Feel free to add feedback to that issue.

What industry standards apply to the string formats that Temporal uses?

See the standards section above.

When and how will Temporal's string extensions be standardized?

For IANA time zones and non-Gregorian calendars, a standards-track extension to RFC 3339 is being worked on as part of the IETF SEDATE working group. A draft RFC is available and is currently on the path to standardization.

Can I use a string in place of an object in Temporal APIs?

Yes! Any ECMAScript Temporal method that accepts a Temporal object parameter will also accept a string or property-bag representation of that object.

newYear = Temporal.PlainDate.from('2022-01-01');
newYear.until(Temporal.PlainDate.from('2022-01-15')); // => P14D
newYear.until('2022-01-15'); // => P14D
newYear.until({ year: 2022, month: 1, day: 15 }); // => P14D

Will Temporal parse ISO 8601 year-week-day strings, e.g. 2020-W13-5?

No. Year-week-day strings like 2020-W13-5 are not parsed by the initial Temporal API. This is a fairly common request for a future proposal that extends Temporal. See for more details.