Draft ECMA-402 / February 29, 2024

ECMAScript® 2024 Internationalization API Specification

Contributing to this Specification

This specification is developed on GitHub with the help of the ECMAScript community. There are a number of ways to contribute to the development of this specification:

Refer to the colophon for more information on how this document is created.

Introduction

This specification's source can be found at https://github.com/tc39/ecma402.

The ECMAScript 2024 Internationalization API Specification (ECMA-402 11th Edition), provides key language sensitive functionality as a complement to the ECMAScript 2024 Language Specification (ECMA-262 15th Edition or successor). Its functionality has been selected from that of well-established internationalization APIs such as those of the Internationalization Components for Unicode (ICU) library (https://unicode-org.github.io/icu-docs/), of the .NET framework, or of the Java platform.

The 1st Edition API was developed by an ad-hoc group established by Ecma TC39 in September 2010 based on a proposal by Nebojša Ćirić and Jungshik Shin.

The 2nd Edition API was adopted by the General Assembly of June 2015, as a complement to the ECMAScript 6th Edition.

The 3rd Edition API was the first edition released under Ecma TC39's new yearly release cadence and open development process. A plain-text source document was built from the ECMA-402 source document to serve as the base for further development entirely on GitHub. Over the year of this standard's development, dozens of pull requests and issues were filed representing several of bug fixes, editorial fixes and other improvements. Additionally, numerous software tools were developed to aid in this effort including Ecmarkup, Ecmarkdown, and Grammarkdown.

Dozens of individuals representing many organizations have made very significant contributions within Ecma TC39 to the development of this edition and to the prior editions. In addition, a vibrant community has emerged supporting TC39's ECMAScript efforts. This community has reviewed numerous drafts, filed dozens of bug reports, performed implementation experiments, contributed test suites, and educated the world-wide developer community about ECMAScript Internationalization. Unfortunately, it is impossible to identify and acknowledge every person and organization who has contributed to this effort.

Norbert Lindenberg
ECMA-402, 1st Edition Project Editor

Rick Waldron
ECMA-402, 2nd Edition Project Editor

Caridy Patiño
ECMA-402, 3rd, 4th and 5th Editions Project Editor

Caridy Patiño, Daniel Ehrenberg, Leo Balter
ECMA-402, 6th Edition Project Editors

Leo Balter, Valerie Young, Isaac Durazo
ECMA-402, 7th Edition Project Editors

Leo Balter, Richard Gibson
ECMA-402, 8th Edition Project Editors

Leo Balter, Richard Gibson, Ujjwal Sharma
ECMA-402, 9th Edition Project Editors

Richard Gibson, Ujjwal Sharma
ECMA-402, 10th Edition Project Editors

Richard Gibson, Ujjwal Sharma
ECMA-402, 11th Edition Project Editors

1 Scope

This Standard defines the application programming interface for ECMAScript objects that support programs that need to adapt to the linguistic and cultural conventions used by different human languages and countries.

2 Conformance

A conforming implementation of this specification must conform to the ECMAScript 2024 Language Specification (ECMA-262 15th Edition, or successor), and must provide and support all the objects, properties, functions, and program semantics described in this specification. Nothing in this specification is intended to allow behaviour that is otherwise prohibited by ECMA-262, and any such conflict should be considered an editorial error rather than an override of constraints from ECMA-262.

A conforming implementation is permitted to provide additional objects, properties, and functions beyond those described in this specification. In particular, a conforming implementation is permitted to provide properties not described in this specification, and values for those properties, for objects that are described herein. A conforming implementation is not permitted to add optional arguments to the functions defined in this specification.

A conforming implementation is permitted to accept additional values, and then have implementation-defined behaviour instead of throwing a RangeError, for the following properties of options arguments:

  • The options property "localeMatcher" in all constructors and supportedLocalesOf methods.
  • The options properties "usage" and "sensitivity" in the Collator constructor.
  • The options properties "style", "currencyDisplay", "notation", "compactDisplay", "signDisplay", "currencySign", and "unitDisplay" in the NumberFormat constructor.
  • The options properties "minimumIntegerDigits", "minimumFractionDigits", "maximumFractionDigits", "minimumSignificantDigits", and "maximumSignificantDigits" in the NumberFormat constructor, provided that the additional values are interpreted as integer values higher than the specified limits.
  • The options properties listed in Table 7 in the DateTimeFormat constructor.
  • The options property "formatMatcher" in the DateTimeFormat constructor.
  • The options properties "minimumIntegerDigits", "minimumFractionDigits", "maximumFractionDigits", and "minimumSignificantDigits" in the PluralRules constructor, provided that the additional values are interpreted as integer values higher than the specified limits.
  • The options property "type" in the PluralRules constructor.
  • The options property "style" and "numeric" in the RelativeTimeFormat constructor.
  • The options property "style" and "type" in the DisplayNames constructor.

3 Normative References

The following referenced documents are required for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ECMAScript 2024 Language Specification (ECMA-262 15th Edition, or successor).
https://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Ecma-262.htm

Note 1
Throughout this document, the phrase “es2024, x” (where x is a sequence of numbers separated by periods) may be used as shorthand for "ECMAScript 2024 Language Specification (ECMA-262 15th Edition, sub clause x)". Where x is followed by more such sequences of period-separated numbers, separated from each other by commas, each such sequence is also a shorthand for the corresponding sub clause of ECMA-262.
Note 2
Sections of this specification that depend on these references are updated on a best-effort basis, but are not guaranteed to be up-to-date with those standards.

4 Overview

This section contains a non-normative overview of the ECMAScript 2024 Internationalization API Specification.

4.1 Internationalization, Localization, and Globalization

Internationalization of software means designing it such that it supports or can be easily adapted to support the needs of users speaking different languages and having different cultural expectations, and enables worldwide communication between them. Localization then is the actual adaptation to a specific language and culture. Globalization of software is commonly understood to be the combination of internationalization and localization. Globalization starts at the lowest level by using a text representation that supports all languages in the world, and using standard identifiers to identify languages, countries, time zones, and other relevant parameters. It continues with using a user interface language and data presentation that the user understands, and finally often requires product-specific adaptations to the user's language, culture, and environment.

The ECMAScript 2024 Language Specification lays the foundation by using Unicode for text representation and by providing a few language-sensitive functions, but gives applications little control over the behaviour of these functions. This specification builds on that foundation by providing a set of customizable language-sensitive functionality. The API is useful even for applications that themselves are not internationalized, as even applications targeting only one language and one region need to properly support that one language and region. However, the API also enables applications that support multiple languages and regions, even concurrently, as may be needed in server environments.

4.2 API Overview

This specification is designed to complement the ECMAScript 2024 Language Specification by providing key language-sensitive functionality. The API can be added to an implementation of the ECMAScript 2024 Language Specification (ECMA-262 15th Edition, or successor) in whole or in part. This specification introduces new language values observable to ECMAScript code (such as the value of a [[FallbackSymbol]] internal slot and the set of values transitively reachable from %Intl% by property access), and also refines the definition of some functions specified in ECMA-262 (as described below). Neither category prohibits behaviour that is otherwise permitted for values and interfaces defined in ECMA-262, in order to support adoption of this specification by any implementation of ECMA-262.

This specification provides several key pieces of language-sensitive functionality that are required in most applications: String comparison (collation), number formatting, date and time formatting, relative time formatting, display names, list formatting, locale selection and operation, pluralization rules, case conversion, and text segmentation. While the ECMAScript 2024 Language Specification provides functions for this basic functionality (on Array.prototype: toLocaleString; on String.prototype: localeCompare, toLocaleLowerCase, toLocaleUpperCase; on Number.prototype: toLocaleString; on Date.prototype: toLocaleString, toLocaleDateString, and toLocaleTimeString), their actual behaviour is left largely implemenation-defined. This specification provides additional functionality, control over the language and over details of the behaviour to be used, and a more complete specification of required functionality.

Applications can use the API in two ways:

  1. Directly, by using a service constructor to construct an object, specifying a list of preferred languages and options to configure its behaviour. The object provides a main function (compare, select, format, etc.), which can be called repeatedly. It also provides a resolvedOptions function, which the application can use to find out the exact configuration of the object.
  2. Indirectly, by using the functions of the ECMAScript 2024 Language Specification mentioned above. The collation and formatting functions are respecified in this specification to accept the same arguments as the Collator, NumberFormat, and DateTimeFormat constructors and produce the same results as their compare or format methods. The case conversion functions are respecified to accept a list of preferred languages.

The Intl object is used to package all functionality defined in this specification in order to avoid name collisions.

Note
While the API includes a variety of formatters, it does not provide any parsing facilities. This is intentional, has been discussed extensively, and concluded after weighing in all the benefits and drawbacks of including said functionality. See the discussion on the issue tracker.

4.3 API Conventions

Every Intl constructor should behave as if defined by a class, throwing a TypeError exception when called as a function (without NewTarget). For backwards compatibility with past editions, this does not apply to %Intl.Collator%, %Intl.DateTimeFormat%, or %Intl.NumberFormat%, each of which construct and return a new object when called as a function.

Note
In ECMA 402 v1, Intl constructors supported a mode of operation where calling them with an existing object as a receiver would add relevant internal slots to the receiver, effectively transforming it into an instance of the class. In ECMA 402 v2, this capability was removed, to avoid adding internal slots to existing objects. In ECMA 402 v3, the capability was re-added as "normative optional" in a mode which chains the underlying Intl instance on any object, when the constructor is called. See Issue 57 for details.

4.4 Implementation Dependencies

Due to the nature of internationalization, this specification has to leave several details implementation dependent:

  • The set of locales that an implementation supports with adequate localizations: Linguists estimate the number of human languages to around 6000, and the more widely spoken ones have variations based on regions or other parameters. Even large locale data collections, such as the Common Locale Data Repository, cover only a subset of this large set. Implementations targeting resource-constrained devices may have to further reduce the subset.
  • The exact form of localizations such as format patterns: In many cases locale-dependent conventions are not standardized, so different forms may exist side by side, or they vary over time. Different internationalization libraries may have implemented different forms, without any of them being actually wrong. In order to allow this API to be implemented on top of existing libraries, such variations have to be permitted.
  • Subsets of Unicode: Some operations, such as collation, operate on strings that can include characters from the entire Unicode character set. However, both the Unicode Standard and the ECMAScript standard allow implementations to limit their functionality to subsets of the Unicode character set. In addition, locale conventions typically don't specify the desired behaviour for the entire Unicode character set, but only for those characters that are relevant for the locale. While the Unicode Collation Algorithm combines a default collation order for the entire Unicode character set with the ability to tailor for local conventions, subsets and tailorings still result in differences in behaviour.

4.4.1 Compatibility across implementations

ECMA 402 describes the schema of the data used by its functions. The data contained inside is implementation-dependent, and expected to change over time and vary between implementations. The variation is visible by programmers, and it is possible to construct programs which will depend on a particular output. However, this specification attempts to describe reasonable constraints which will allow well-written programs to function across implementations. Implementations are encouraged to continue their efforts to harmonize linguistic data.

5 Notational Conventions

This standard uses a subset of the notational conventions of the ECMAScript 2024 Language Specification (ECMA-262 15th Edition), as es2024:

  • Object Internal Methods and Internal Slots, as described in es2024, 6.1.7.2.
  • Algorithm conventions, as described in es2024, 5.2, and the use of abstract operations, as described in es2024, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4.
  • Internal Slots, as described in es2024, 10.1.
  • The List and Record Specification Type, as described in es2024, 6.2.2.
Note
As described in the ECMAScript Language Specification, algorithms are used to precisely specify the required semantics of ECMAScript constructs, but are not intended to imply the use of any specific implementation technique. Internal slots are used to define the semantics of object values, but are not part of the API. They are defined purely for expository purposes. An implementation of the API must behave as if it produced and operated upon internal slots in the manner described here.

As an extension to the Record Specification Type, the notation “[[<name>]]” denotes a field whose name is given by the variable name, which must have a String value. For example, if a variable s has the value "a", then [[<s>]] denotes the field [[a]].

This specification uses blocks demarcated as Normative Optional to denote the sense of Annex B in ECMA 262. That is, normative optional sections are required when the ECMAScript host is a web browser. The content of the section is normative but optional if the ECMAScript host is not a web browser.

5.1 Well-Known Intrinsic Objects

The following table extends the Well-Known Intrinsic Objects table defined in es2024, 6.1.7.4.

Table 1: Well-known Intrinsic Objects (Extensions)
Intrinsic Name Global Name ECMAScript Language Association
%Intl% Intl The Intl object (8)
%Intl.Collator% Intl.Collator The Intl.Collator constructor (10.1)
%Intl.DateTimeFormat% Intl.DateTimeFormat The Intl.DateTimeFormat constructor (11.1)
%Intl.DisplayNames% Intl.DisplayNames The Intl.DisplayNames constructor (12.1)
%Intl.ListFormat% Intl.ListFormat The Intl.ListFormat constructor (13.1)
%Intl.Locale% Intl.Locale The Intl.Locale constructor (14.1)
%Intl.NumberFormat% Intl.NumberFormat The Intl.NumberFormat constructor (15.1)
%Intl.PluralRules% Intl.PluralRules The Intl.PluralRules constructor (16.1)
%Intl.RelativeTimeFormat% Intl.RelativeTimeFormat The Intl.RelativeTimeFormat constructor (17.1)
%Intl.Segmenter% Intl.Segmenter The Intl.Segmenter constructor (18.1)
%IntlSegmentIteratorPrototype% The prototype of Segment Iterator objects (18.6.2)
%IntlSegmentsPrototype% The prototype of Segments objects (18.5.2)

6 Identification of Locales, Currencies, Time Zones, Measurement Units, Numbering Systems, Collations, and Calendars

This clause describes the String values used in this specification to identify locales, currencies, time zones, measurement units, numbering systems, collations, and calendars.

6.1 Case Sensitivity and Case Mapping

The String values used to identify locales, currencies, scripts, and time zones are interpreted in an ASCII-case-insensitive manner, treating the code units 0x0041 through 0x005A (corresponding to Unicode characters LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A through LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Z) as equivalent to the corresponding code units 0x0061 through 0x007A (corresponding to Unicode characters LATIN SMALL LETTER A through LATIN SMALL LETTER Z), both inclusive. No other case folding equivalences are applied.

Note
For example, "ß" (U+00DF) must not match or be mapped to "SS" (U+0053, U+0053). "ı" (U+0131) must not match or be mapped to "I" (U+0049).

The ASCII-uppercase of a String value S is the String value derived from S by replacing each occurrence of an ASCII lowercase letter code unit (0x0061 through 0x007A, inclusive) with the corresponding ASCII uppercase letter code unit (0x0041 through 0x005A, inclusive) while preserving all other code units.

The ASCII-lowercase of a String value S is the String value derived from S by replacing each occurrence of an ASCII uppercase letter code unit (0x0041 through 0x005A, inclusive) with the corresponding ASCII lowercase letter code unit (0x0061 through 0x007A, inclusive) while preserving all other code units.

A String value A is an ASCII-case-insensitive match for String value B if the ASCII-uppercase of A is exactly the same sequence of code units as the ASCII-uppercase of B. A sequence of Unicode code points A is an ASCII-case-insensitive match for B if B is an ASCII-case-insensitive match for ! CodePointsToString(A).

6.2 Language Tags

This specification identifies locales using Unicode BCP 47 locale identifiers as defined by Unicode Technical Standard #35 Part 1 Core, Section 3.3 BCP 47 Conformance, and its algorithms refer to Unicode locale nonterminals defined in the grammars of Section 3 Unicode Language and Locale Identifiers. Each such identifier can also be referred to as a language tag, and is in fact a valid language tag as that term is used in BCP 47. A locale identifier in canonical form as specified in Unicode Technical Standard #35 Part 1 Core, Section 3.2.1 Canonical Unicode Locale Identifiers is referred to as a "Unicode canonicalized locale identifier".

Locale identifiers consist of case-insensitive Unicode Basic Latin alphanumeric subtags separated by "-" (U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS) characters, with single-character subtags referred to as "singleton subtags". Unicode Technical Standard #35 Part 1 Core, Section 3.6 Unicode BCP 47 U Extension subtag sequences are used extensively, and the term "Unicode locale extension sequence" describes the longest substring of a language tag that can be matched by the unicode_locale_extensions Unicode locale nonterminal and is not part of a "-x-…" private use subtag sequence. It starts with "-u-" and includes all immediately following subtags that are not singleton subtags, along with their preceding "-" separators. For example, the Unicode locale extension sequence of "en-US-u-fw-mon-x-u-ex-foobar" is "-u-fw-mon".

All structurally valid language tags are appropriate for use with the APIs defined by this specification, but implementations are not required to use Unicode Common Locale Data Repository (CLDR) data for validating them; the set of locales and thus language tags that an implementation supports with adequate localizations is implementation-defined. Intl constructors map requested language tags to locales supported by their respective implementations.

6.2.1 IsStructurallyValidLanguageTag ( locale )

The abstract operation IsStructurallyValidLanguageTag takes argument locale (a String) and returns a Boolean. It determines whether locale is a syntactically well-formed language tag. It does not consider whether locale conveys any meaningful semantics, nor does it differentiate between aliased subtags and their preferred replacement subtags or require canonical casing or subtag ordering. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let lowerLocale be the ASCII-lowercase of locale.
  2. If lowerLocale cannot be matched by the unicode_locale_id Unicode locale nonterminal, return false.
  3. If lowerLocale uses any of the backwards compatibility syntax described in Unicode Technical Standard #35 Part 1 Core, Section 3.3 BCP 47 Conformance, return false.
  4. Let languageId be the longest prefix of lowerLocale matched by the unicode_language_id Unicode locale nonterminal.
  5. Let variants be GetLocaleVariants(languageId).
  6. If variants is not undefined, then
    1. If variants contains any duplicate subtags, return false.
  7. Let allExtensions be the suffix of lowerLocale following languageId.
  8. If allExtensions contains a substring matched by the pu_extensions Unicode locale nonterminal, let extensions be the prefix of allExtensions preceding the longest such substring. Otherwise, let extensions be allExtensions.
  9. If extensions is not the empty String, then
    1. If extensions contains any duplicate singleton subtags, return false.
    2. Let transformExtension be the longest substring of extensions matched by the transformed_extensions Unicode locale nonterminal. If there is no such substring, return true.
    3. Assert: The substring of transformExtension from 0 to 3 is "-t-".
    4. Let tPrefix be the substring of transformExtension from 3.
    5. Let tlang be the longest prefix of tPrefix matched by the tlang Unicode locale nonterminal. If there is no such prefix, return true.
    6. Let tlangRefinements be the longest suffix of tlang following a non-empty prefix matched by the unicode_language_subtag Unicode locale nonterminal.
    7. If tlangRefinements contains any duplicate substrings matched greedily by the unicode_variant_subtag Unicode locale nonterminal, return false.
  10. Return true.

6.2.2 CanonicalizeUnicodeLocaleId ( locale )

The abstract operation CanonicalizeUnicodeLocaleId takes argument locale (a language tag) and returns a Unicode canonicalized locale identifier. It returns the canonical and case-regularized form of the locale. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let localeId be the String value resulting from performing the algorithm to transform locale to canonical form per Unicode Technical Standard #35 Part 1 Core, Annex C LocaleId Canonicalization (note that the algorithm begins with canonicalizing syntax only).
  2. If localeId contains a substring that is a Unicode locale extension sequence, then
    1. Let extension be the String value consisting of the substring of the Unicode locale extension sequence within localeId.
    2. Let newExtension be "-u".
    3. Let components be UnicodeExtensionComponents(extension).
    4. For each element attr of components.[[Attributes]], do
      1. Set newExtension to the string-concatenation of newExtension, "-", and attr.
    5. For each Record { [[Key]], [[Value]] } keyword of components.[[Keywords]], do
      1. Set newExtension to the string-concatenation of newExtension, "-", and keyword.[[Key]].
      2. If keyword.[[Value]] is not the empty String, then
        1. Set newExtension to the string-concatenation of newExtension, "-", and keyword.[[Value]].
    6. Assert: newExtension is not equal to "-u".
    7. Set localeId to a copy of localeId in which the first appearance of substring extension has been replaced with newExtension.
  3. Return localeId.
Note
Step 2 ensures that a Unicode locale extension sequence in the returned language tag contains:
  • only the first instance of any attribute duplicated in the input, and
  • only the first keyword for a given key in the input.

6.2.3 DefaultLocale ( )

The implementation-defined abstract operation DefaultLocale takes no arguments and returns a Unicode canonicalized locale identifier. The returned String value represents the structurally valid (6.2.1) and canonicalized (6.2.2) language tag for the host environment's current locale. It must not contain a Unicode locale extension sequence.

6.3 Currency Codes

This specification identifies currencies using 3-letter currency codes as defined by ISO 4217. Their canonical form is uppercase.

All well-formed 3-letter ISO 4217 currency codes are allowed. However, the set of combinations of currency code and language tag for which localized currency symbols are available is implementation dependent. Where a localized currency symbol is not available, the ISO 4217 currency code is used for formatting.

6.3.1 IsWellFormedCurrencyCode ( currency )

The abstract operation IsWellFormedCurrencyCode takes argument currency (a String) and returns a Boolean. It verifies that the currency argument represents a well-formed 3-letter ISO currency code. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If the length of currency is not 3, return false.
  2. Let normalized be the ASCII-uppercase of currency.
  3. If normalized contains any code unit outside of 0x0041 through 0x005A (corresponding to Unicode characters LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A through LATIN CAPITAL LETTER Z), return false.
  4. Return true.

6.4 AvailableCanonicalCurrencies ( )

The implementation-defined abstract operation AvailableCanonicalCurrencies takes no arguments and returns a List of Strings. The returned List is ordered as if an Array of the same values had been sorted using %Array.prototype.sort% using undefined as comparefn, and contains unique, well-formed, and upper case canonicalized 3-letter ISO 4217 currency codes, identifying the currencies for which the implementation provides the functionality of Intl.DisplayNames and Intl.NumberFormat objects.

6.5 Time Zone Names

This specification identifies time zones using the Zone and Link names of the IANA Time Zone Database. Their canonical form is the corresponding Zone name in the casing used in the IANA Time Zone Database except as specifically overridden by CanonicalizeTimeZoneName.

A conforming implementation must recognize "UTC" and all other Zone and Link names (and only such names), and use best available current and historical information about their offsets from UTC and their daylight saving time rules in calculations. However, the set of combinations of time zone name and language tag for which localized time zone names are available is implementation dependent.

6.5.1 IsValidTimeZoneName ( timeZone )

The abstract operation IsValidTimeZoneName takes argument timeZone (a String) and returns a Boolean. It verifies that the timeZone argument represents a valid Zone or Link name of the IANA Time Zone Database. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If one of the Zone or Link names of the IANA Time Zone Database is an ASCII-case-insensitive match for timeZone, return true.
  2. If timeZone is an ASCII-case-insensitive match for "UTC", return true.
  3. Return false.
Note
Any value returned from SystemTimeZoneIdentifier that is not recognized as valid by IsTimeZoneOffsetString must be recognized as valid by IsValidTimeZoneName.

6.5.2 CanonicalizeTimeZoneName ( timeZone )

The abstract operation CanonicalizeTimeZoneName takes argument timeZone (a String value that is a valid time zone name as verified by IsValidTimeZoneName) and returns a String. It returns the canonical and case-regularized form of timeZone. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let ianaTimeZone be the String value of the Zone or Link name of the IANA Time Zone Database that is an ASCII-case-insensitive match for timeZone.
  2. If ianaTimeZone is a Link name, set ianaTimeZone to the String value of the corresponding Zone name as specified in the file backward of the IANA Time Zone Database.
  3. If ianaTimeZone is one of "Etc/UTC", "Etc/GMT", or "GMT", return "UTC".
  4. Return ianaTimeZone.

6.5.3 AvailableCanonicalTimeZones ( )

The implementation-defined abstract operation AvailableCanonicalTimeZones takes no arguments and returns a List of Strings. The returned List is a sorted List of supported Zone and Link names in the IANA Time Zone Database. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let names be a List of all Zone and Link names in the IANA Time Zone Database that are supported by the implementation.
  2. Let result be a new empty List.
  3. For each element name of names, do
    1. Assert: IsValidTimeZoneName( name ) is true.
    2. Let canonical be CanonicalizeTimeZoneName( name ).
    3. If result does not contain canonical, then
      1. Append canonical to result.
  4. Sort result in order as if an Array of the same values had been sorted using %Array.prototype.sort% using undefined as comparefn.
  5. Return result.

6.6 Measurement Unit Identifiers

This specification identifies measurement units using a core unit identifier (or equivalently core unit ID) as defined by Unicode Technical Standard #35 Part 2 General, Section 6.2 Unit Identifiers. Their canonical form is a string containing only Unicode Basic Latin lowercase letters (U+0061 LATIN SMALL LETTER A through U+007A LATIN SMALL LETTER Z) with zero or more medial hyphens (U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS).

Only a limited set of core unit identifiers are sanctioned. Attempting to use an unsanctioned core unit identifier results in a RangeError.

6.6.1 IsWellFormedUnitIdentifier ( unitIdentifier )

The abstract operation IsWellFormedUnitIdentifier takes argument unitIdentifier (a String) and returns a Boolean. It verifies that the unitIdentifier argument represents a well-formed core unit identifier that is either a sanctioned single unit or a complex unit formed by division of two sanctioned single units. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If IsSanctionedSingleUnitIdentifier(unitIdentifier) is true, then
    1. Return true.
  2. Let i be StringIndexOf(unitIdentifier, "-per-", 0).
  3. If i is -1 or StringIndexOf(unitIdentifier, "-per-", i + 1) is not -1, then
    1. Return false.
  4. Assert: The five-character substring "-per-" occurs exactly once in unitIdentifier, at index i.
  5. Let numerator be the substring of unitIdentifier from 0 to i.
  6. Let denominator be the substring of unitIdentifier from i + 5.
  7. If IsSanctionedSingleUnitIdentifier(numerator) and IsSanctionedSingleUnitIdentifier(denominator) are both true, then
    1. Return true.
  8. Return false.

6.6.2 IsSanctionedSingleUnitIdentifier ( unitIdentifier )

The abstract operation IsSanctionedSingleUnitIdentifier takes argument unitIdentifier (a String) and returns a Boolean. It verifies that the unitIdentifier argument is among the single unit identifiers sanctioned in the current version of this specification, which are a subset of the Common Locale Data Repository release 38 unit validity data; the list may grow over time. As discussed in Unicode Technical Standard #35 Part 2 General, Section 6.2 Unit Identifiers, a single unit identifier is a core unit identifier that is not composed of multiplication or division of other unit identifiers. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If unitIdentifier is listed in Table 2 below, return true.
  2. Else, return false.
Table 2: Single units sanctioned for use in ECMAScript
Single Unit Identifier
acre
bit
byte
celsius
centimeter
day
degree
fahrenheit
fluid-ounce
foot
gallon
gigabit
gigabyte
gram
hectare
hour
inch
kilobit
kilobyte
kilogram
kilometer
liter
megabit
megabyte
meter
microsecond
mile
mile-scandinavian
milliliter
millimeter
millisecond
minute
month
nanosecond
ounce
percent
petabyte
pound
second
stone
terabit
terabyte
week
yard
year

6.6.3 AvailableCanonicalUnits ( )

The abstract operation AvailableCanonicalUnits takes no arguments and returns a List of Strings. The returned List is ordered as if an Array of the same values had been sorted using %Array.prototype.sort% using undefined as comparefn, and consists of the unique values of simple unit identifiers listed in every row of Table 2, except the header row.

6.7 Numbering System Identifiers

This specification identifies numbering systems using a numbering system identifier corresponding with the name referenced by Unicode Technical Standard #35 Part 3 Numbers, Section 1 Numbering Systems. Their canonical form is a string containing only Unicode Basic Latin lowercase letters (U+0061 LATIN SMALL LETTER A through U+007A LATIN SMALL LETTER Z).

6.7.1 AvailableCanonicalNumberingSystems ( )

The implementation-defined abstract operation AvailableCanonicalNumberingSystems takes no arguments and returns a List of Strings. The returned List is ordered as if an Array of the same values had been sorted using %Array.prototype.sort% using undefined as comparefn, and contains unique canonical numbering systems identifiers identifying the numbering systems for which the implementation provides the functionality of Intl.DateTimeFormat, Intl.NumberFormat, and Intl.RelativeTimeFormat objects. The list must include the Numbering System value of every row of Table 14, except the header row.

6.8 Collation Types

This specification identifies collations using a collation type as defined by Unicode Technical Standard #35 Part 5 Collation, Section 3.1 Collation Types. Their canonical form is a string containing only Unicode Basic Latin lowercase letters (U+0061 LATIN SMALL LETTER A through U+007A LATIN SMALL LETTER Z) with zero or more medial hyphens (U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS).

6.8.1 AvailableCanonicalCollations ( )

The implementation-defined abstract operation AvailableCanonicalCollations takes no arguments and returns a List of Strings. The returned List is ordered as if an Array of the same values had been sorted using %Array.prototype.sort% using undefined as comparefn, and contains unique canonical collation types identifying the collations for which the implementation provides the functionality of Intl.Collator objects.

6.9 Calendar Types

This specification identifies calendars using a calendar type as defined by Unicode Technical Standard #35 Part 4 Dates, Section 2 Calendar Elements. Their canonical form is a string containing only Unicode Basic Latin lowercase letters (U+0061 LATIN SMALL LETTER A through U+007A LATIN SMALL LETTER Z) with zero or more medial hyphens (U+002D HYPHEN-MINUS).

6.9.1 AvailableCanonicalCalendars ( )

The implementation-defined abstract operation AvailableCanonicalCalendars takes no arguments and returns a List of Strings. The returned List is ordered as if an Array of the same values had been sorted using %Array.prototype.sort% using undefined as comparefn, and contains unique canonical calendar types identifying the calendars for which the implementation provides the functionality of Intl.DateTimeFormat objects. The list must include "iso8601".

7 Requirements for Standard Built-in ECMAScript Objects

Unless specified otherwise in this document, the objects, functions, and constructors described in this standard are subject to the generic requirements and restrictions specified for standard built-in ECMAScript objects in the ECMAScript 2024 Language Specification (ECMA-262 15th Edition, or successor), clause 18.

8 The Intl Object

The Intl object is the %Intl% intrinsic object and the initial value of the "Intl" property of the global object. The Intl object is a single ordinary object.

The value of the [[Prototype]] internal slot of the Intl object is the intrinsic object %Object.prototype%.

The Intl object is not a function object. It does not have a [[Construct]] internal method; it is not possible to use the Intl object as a constructor with the new operator. The Intl object does not have a [[Call]] internal method; it is not possible to invoke the Intl object as a function.

The Intl object has an internal slot, [[FallbackSymbol]], which is a new %Symbol% in the current realm with the [[Description]] "IntlLegacyConstructedSymbol".

8.1 Value Properties of the Intl Object

8.1.1 Intl[ @@toStringTag ]

The initial value of the @@toStringTag property is the String value "Intl".

This property has the attributes { [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: true }.

8.2 Constructor Properties of the Intl Object

With the exception of Intl.Locale, each of the following constructors is a service constructor that creates objects providing locale-sensitive services.

8.2.1 Intl.Collator ( . . . )

See 10.

8.2.2 Intl.DateTimeFormat ( . . . )

See 11.

8.2.3 Intl.DisplayNames ( . . . )

See 12.

8.2.4 Intl.ListFormat ( . . . )

See 13.

8.2.5 Intl.Locale ( . . . )

See 14.

8.2.6 Intl.NumberFormat ( . . . )

See 15.

8.2.7 Intl.PluralRules ( . . . )

See 16.

8.2.8 Intl.RelativeTimeFormat ( . . . )

See 17.

8.2.9 Intl.Segmenter ( . . . )

See 18.

8.3 Function Properties of the Intl Object

8.3.1 Intl.getCanonicalLocales ( locales )

When the getCanonicalLocales method is called with argument locales, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let ll be ? CanonicalizeLocaleList(locales).
  2. Return CreateArrayFromList(ll).

8.3.2 Intl.supportedValuesOf ( key )

When the supportedValuesOf method is called with argument key , the following steps are taken:

  1. Let key be ? ToString(key).
  2. If key is "calendar", then
    1. Let list be AvailableCanonicalCalendars( ).
  3. Else if key is "collation", then
    1. Let list be AvailableCanonicalCollations( ).
  4. Else if key is "currency", then
    1. Let list be AvailableCanonicalCurrencies( ).
  5. Else if key is "numberingSystem", then
    1. Let list be AvailableCanonicalNumberingSystems( ).
  6. Else if key is "timeZone", then
    1. Let list be AvailableCanonicalTimeZones( ).
  7. Else if key is "unit", then
    1. Let list be AvailableCanonicalUnits( ).
  8. Else,
    1. Throw a RangeError exception.
  9. Return CreateArrayFromList( list ).

9 Locale and Parameter Negotiation

Service constructors use a common pattern to negotiate the requests represented by their locales and options arguments against the actual capabilities of their implementations. That common behaviour is explained here in terms of internal slots describing the capabilities and abstract operations using these internal slots.

9.1 Internal slots of Service Constructors

Each service constructor has the following internal slots:

  • [[AvailableLocales]] is a List that contains structurally valid (6.2.1) and canonicalized (6.2.2) language tags identifying the locales for which the implementation provides the functionality of the constructed objects. Language tags on the list must not have a Unicode locale extension sequence. The list must include the value returned by the DefaultLocale abstract operation (6.2.3), and must not include duplicates. Implementations must include in [[AvailableLocales]] locales that can serve as fallbacks in the algorithm used to resolve locales (see 9.2.7). For example, implementations that provide a "de-DE" locale must include a "de" locale that can serve as a fallback for requests such as "de-AT" and "de-CH". For locales that include a script subtag in addition to language and region, the corresponding locale without a script subtag must also be supported; that is, if an implementation recognizes "zh-Hant-TW", it is also expected to recognize "zh-TW". The ordering of the locales within [[AvailableLocales]] is irrelevant.
  • [[RelevantExtensionKeys]] is a List of Unicode locale extension sequence keys defined in Unicode Technical Standard #35 Part 1 Core, Section 3.6.1 Key and Type Definitions that are relevant for the functionality of the constructed objects.
  • [[SortLocaleData]] and [[SearchLocaleData]] (for Intl.Collator) and [[LocaleData]] (for every other service constructor) are Records that have fields for each locale contained in [[AvailableLocales]]. The value of each of these fields must be a Record in which each element of [[RelevantExtensionKeys]] identifies the name of a field whose value is a non-empty List of Strings representing the type values that are supported by the implementation in the relevant locale for the corresponding Unicode locale extension sequence key, with the first element providing the default value for that key in the locale.
Note
For example, an implementation of DateTimeFormat might include the language tag "fa-IR" in its [[AvailableLocales]] internal slot, and must (according to 11.2.3) include the keys "ca", "hc", and "nu" in its [[RelevantExtensionKeys]] internal slot. The default calendar for that locale is usually "persian", but an implementation might also support "gregory", "islamic", and "islamic-civil". The Record in the DateTimeFormat [[LocaleData]] internal slot would therefore include a [[fa-IR]] field whose value is a Record like { [[ca]]: « "persian", "gregory", "islamic", "islamic-civil" », [[hc]]: « … », [[nu]]: « … » }, along with other locale-named fields having the same value shape but different elements in their Lists.

9.2 Abstract Operations

Where the following abstract operations take an availableLocales argument, it must be an [[AvailableLocales]] List as specified in 9.1.

9.2.1 CanonicalizeLocaleList ( locales )

The abstract operation CanonicalizeLocaleList takes argument locales (an ECMAScript language value) and returns either a normal completion containing a List of Unicode canonicalized locale identifiers or a throw completion. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If locales is undefined, then
    1. Return a new empty List.
  2. Let seen be a new empty List.
  3. If Type(locales) is String or Type(locales) is Object and locales has an [[InitializedLocale]] internal slot, then
    1. Let O be CreateArrayFromListlocales »).
  4. Else,
    1. Let O be ? ToObject(locales).
  5. Let len be ? LengthOfArrayLike(O).
  6. Let k be 0.
  7. Repeat, while k < len,
    1. Let Pk be ! ToString(𝔽(k)).
    2. Let kPresent be ? HasProperty(O, Pk).
    3. If kPresent is true, then
      1. Let kValue be ? Get(O, Pk).
      2. If Type(kValue) is not String or Object, throw a TypeError exception.
      3. If Type(kValue) is Object and kValue has an [[InitializedLocale]] internal slot, then
        1. Let tag be kValue.[[Locale]].
      4. Else,
        1. Let tag be ? ToString(kValue).
      5. If IsStructurallyValidLanguageTag(tag) is false, throw a RangeError exception.
      6. Let canonicalizedTag be CanonicalizeUnicodeLocaleId(tag).
      7. If seen does not contain canonicalizedTag, append canonicalizedTag to seen.
    4. Set k to k + 1.
  8. Return seen.
Note 1
Non-normative summary: The abstract operation interprets the locales argument as an array and copies its elements into a List, validating the elements as structurally valid language tags and canonicalizing them, and omitting duplicates.
Note 2
Requiring kValue to be a String or Object means that the Number value NaN will not be interpreted as the language tag "nan", which stands for Min Nan Chinese.

9.2.2 BestAvailableLocale ( availableLocales, locale )

The abstract operation BestAvailableLocale takes arguments availableLocales (a List of Unicode canonicalized locale identifiers) and locale (a Unicode canonicalized locale identifier) and returns a Unicode canonicalized locale identifier or undefined. It compares locale against the locales in availableLocales and returns either the longest non-empty prefix of locale that is an element of availableLocales, or undefined if there is no such element. It uses the fallback mechanism of RFC 4647, section 3.4. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let candidate be locale.
  2. Repeat,
    1. If availableLocales contains candidate, return candidate.
    2. Let pos be the character index of the last occurrence of "-" (U+002D) within candidate. If that character does not occur, return undefined.
    3. If pos ≥ 2 and the character "-" occurs at index pos - 2 of candidate, set pos to pos - 2.
    4. Set candidate to the substring of candidate from position 0, inclusive, to position pos, exclusive.
Note
When locale includes a Unicode Technical Standard #35 Part 1 Core BCP 47 T Extension subtag sequence, the truncation in this algorithm may temporarily generate invalid language tags. However, none of them will be returned because availableLocales contains only valid language tags.

9.2.3 LookupMatcher ( availableLocales, requestedLocales )

The abstract operation LookupMatcher takes arguments availableLocales (a List of Unicode canonicalized locale identifiers) and requestedLocales (a List of Unicode canonicalized locale identifiers) and returns a Record with fields [[locale]] (a Unicode canonicalized locale identifier) and [[extension]] (a Unicode locale extension sequence or empty). It compares requestedLocales, which must be a List as returned by CanonicalizeLocaleList, against the locales in availableLocales and determines the best available language to meet the request. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. For each element locale of requestedLocales, do
    1. Let noExtensionsLocale be the String value that is locale with any Unicode locale extension sequences removed.
    2. Let availableLocale be BestAvailableLocale(availableLocales, noExtensionsLocale).
    3. If availableLocale is not undefined, then
      1. If locale and noExtensionsLocale are not the same String value, then
        1. Let extension be the String value consisting of the substring of the Unicode locale extension sequence within locale.
      2. Else,
        1. Let extension be empty.
      3. Return the Record { [[locale]]: availableLocale, [[extension]]: extension }.
  2. Let defLocale be DefaultLocale().
  3. Return the Record { [[locale]]: defLocale, [[extension]]: empty }.
Note
The algorithm is based on the Lookup algorithm described in RFC 4647 section 3.4, but options specified through Unicode locale extension sequences are ignored in the lookup. Information about such subsequences is returned separately. The abstract operation returns a record with a [[locale]] field, whose value is the language tag of the selected locale, which must be an element of availableLocales. If the language tag of the request locale that led to the selected locale contained a Unicode locale extension sequence, then the returned record also contains an [[extension]] field whose value is the substring of the Unicode locale extension sequence within the request locale language tag.

9.2.4 BestFitMatcher ( availableLocales, requestedLocales )

The implementation-defined abstract operation BestFitMatcher takes arguments availableLocales (a List of Unicode canonicalized locale identifiers) and requestedLocales (a List of Unicode canonicalized locale identifiers) and returns a Record with fields [[locale]] (a Unicode canonicalized locale identifier) and [[extension]] (a Unicode locale extension sequence or empty). It compares requestedLocales, which must be a List as returned by CanonicalizeLocaleList, against the locales in availableLocales and determines the best available language to meet the request. The algorithm is implementation dependent, but should produce results that a typical user of the requested locales would perceive as at least as good as those produced by the LookupMatcher abstract operation. Options specified through Unicode locale extension sequences must be ignored by the algorithm. Information about such subsequences is returned separately. The abstract operation returns a record with a [[locale]] field, whose value is the language tag of the selected locale, which must be an element of availableLocales. If the language tag of the request locale that led to the selected locale contained a Unicode locale extension sequence, then the returned record's [[extension]] field is set to the substring of the Unicode locale extension sequence within the request locale language tag. Otherwise the [[extension]] field is set to empty.

9.2.5 UnicodeExtensionComponents ( extension )

The abstract operation UnicodeExtensionComponents takes argument extension (a Unicode locale extension sequence) and returns a Record with fields [[Attributes]] and [[Keywords]]. It deconstructs extension into a List of unique attributes and a List of keywords with unique keys. Any repeated appearance of an attribute or keyword key after the first is ignored. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Assert: The ASCII-lowercase of extension is extension.
  2. Assert: The substring of extension from 0 to 3 is "-u-".
  3. Let attributes be a new empty List.
  4. Let keywords be a new empty List.
  5. Let keyword be undefined.
  6. Let size be the length of extension.
  7. Let k be 3.
  8. Repeat, while k < size,
    1. Let e be StringIndexOf(extension, "-", k).
    2. If e = -1, let len be size - k; else let len be e - k.
    3. Let subtag be the substring of extension from k to k + len.
    4. NOTE: A keyword is a sequence of subtags in which the first is a key of length 2 and any subsequent ones (if present) have length in the inclusive interval from 3 to 8, collectively constituting a value along with their medial "-" separators. An attribute is a single subtag with length in the inclusive interval from 3 to 8 that precedes all keywords.
    5. Assert: len ≥ 2.
    6. If keyword is undefined and len ≠ 2, then
      1. If subtag is not an element of attributes, append subtag to attributes.
    7. Else if len = 2, then
      1. Set keyword to the Record { [[Key]]: subtag, [[Value]]: "" }.
      2. If keywords does not contain an element whose [[Key]] is keyword.[[Key]], append keyword to keywords.
    8. Else if keyword.[[Value]] is the empty String, then
      1. Set keyword.[[Value]] to subtag.
    9. Else,
      1. Set keyword.[[Value]] to the string-concatenation of keyword.[[Value]], "-", and subtag.
    10. Set k to k + len + 1.
  9. Return the Record { [[Attributes]]: attributes, [[Keywords]]: keywords }.

9.2.6 InsertUnicodeExtensionAndCanonicalize ( locale, extension )

The abstract operation InsertUnicodeExtensionAndCanonicalize takes arguments locale (a Unicode canonicalized locale identifier) and extension (a Unicode locale extension sequence) and returns a Unicode canonicalized locale identifier. It incorporates extension into locale and returns the canonicalized result. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Assert: locale does not contain a Unicode locale extension sequence.
  2. Let privateIndex be StringIndexOf(locale, "-x-", 0).
  3. If privateIndex = -1, then
    1. Let newLocale be the string-concatenation of locale and extension.
  4. Else,
    1. Let preExtension be the substring of locale from 0 to privateIndex.
    2. Let postExtension be the substring of locale from privateIndex.
    3. Let newLocale be the string-concatenation of preExtension, extension, and postExtension.
  5. Assert: IsStructurallyValidLanguageTag(newLocale) is true.
  6. Return CanonicalizeUnicodeLocaleId(newLocale).

9.2.7 ResolveLocale ( availableLocales, requestedLocales, options, relevantExtensionKeys, localeData )

The abstract operation ResolveLocale takes arguments availableLocales (a List of Unicode canonicalized locale identifiers), requestedLocales (a List of Unicode canonicalized locale identifiers), options (a Record), relevantExtensionKeys (a List of Strings), and localeData (a Record) and returns a Record. It compares a BCP 47 language priority list requestedLocales against the locales in availableLocales and determines the best available language to meet the request. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let matcher be options.[[localeMatcher]].
  2. If matcher is "lookup", then
    1. Let r be LookupMatcher(availableLocales, requestedLocales).
  3. Else,
    1. Let r be BestFitMatcher(availableLocales, requestedLocales).
  4. Let foundLocale be r.[[locale]].
  5. Let foundLocaleData be localeData.[[<foundLocale>]].
  6. Assert: Type(foundLocaleData) is Record.
  7. Let result be a new Record.
  8. Set result.[[LocaleData]] to foundLocaleData.
  9. If r.[[extension]] is not empty, then
    1. Let components be UnicodeExtensionComponents(r.[[extension]]).
    2. Let keywords be components.[[Keywords]].
  10. Let supportedExtension be "-u".
  11. For each element key of relevantExtensionKeys, do
    1. Let keyLocaleData be foundLocaleData.[[<key>]].
    2. Assert: Type(keyLocaleData) is List.
    3. Let value be keyLocaleData[0].
    4. Assert: Type(value) is either String or Null.
    5. Let supportedExtensionAddition be "".
    6. If r.[[extension]] is not empty, then
      1. If keywords contains an element whose [[Key]] is the same as key, then
        1. Let entry be the element of keywords whose [[Key]] is the same as key.
        2. Let requestedValue be entry.[[Value]].
        3. If requestedValue is not the empty String, then
          1. If keyLocaleData contains requestedValue, then
            1. Set value to requestedValue.
            2. Set supportedExtensionAddition to the string-concatenation of "-", key, "-", and value.
        4. Else if keyLocaleData contains "true", then
          1. Set value to "true".
          2. Set supportedExtensionAddition to the string-concatenation of "-" and key.
    7. If options has a field [[<key>]], then
      1. Let optionsValue be options.[[<key>]].
      2. Assert: Type(optionsValue) is either String, Undefined, or Null.
      3. If Type(optionsValue) is String, then
        1. Assert: The ASCII-lowercase of key is key.
        2. Let optionsUValue be the ASCII-lowercase of optionsValue.
        3. Set optionsValue to the String value resulting from canonicalizing optionsUValue as a value of key key per Unicode Technical Standard #35 Part 1 Core, Annex C LocaleId Canonicalization Section 5 Canonicalizing Syntax, Processing LocaleIds.
        4. NOTE: It is recommended that implementations use the 'u' extension data in common/bcp47 provided by the Common Locale Data Repository (available at https://cldr.unicode.org/).
        5. If optionsValue is the empty String, then
          1. Set optionsValue to "true".
      4. If SameValue(optionsValue, value) is false and keyLocaleData contains optionsValue, then
        1. Set value to optionsValue.
        2. Set supportedExtensionAddition to "".
    8. Set result.[[<key>]] to value.
    9. Set supportedExtension to the string-concatenation of supportedExtension and supportedExtensionAddition.
  12. If supportedExtension is "-u", then
    1. Set result.[[Locale]] to foundLocale.
  13. Else,
    1. Set result.[[Locale]] to InsertUnicodeExtensionAndCanonicalize(foundLocale, supportedExtension).
  14. Return result.
Note
Non-normative summary: Two algorithms are available to match the locales: the Lookup algorithm described in RFC 4647 section 3.4, and an implementation dependent best-fit algorithm. Independent of the locale matching algorithm, options specified through Unicode locale extension sequences are negotiated separately, taking the caller's relevant extension keys and locale data into consideration as well as the client-provided options. The abstract operation returns a Record with a field for each key in relevantExtensionKeys, containing the selected values for those keys. This Record also contains a [[locale]] field which stores the language tag of the selected locale with Unicode locale extension sequence key subtags restricted to those in relevantExtensionKeys. If an extension's value is specified in the Unicode locale extension sequence and a different value for that extension is specified in an option, the value from the option is used to set the value of the corresponding field and the overridden extension keyword (the key subtag along with any immediately following type subtags and associated separators) is removed from the string stored in [[locale]].

9.2.8 LookupSupportedLocales ( availableLocales, requestedLocales )

The abstract operation LookupSupportedLocales takes arguments availableLocales (a List of Unicode canonicalized locale identifiers) and requestedLocales (a List of Unicode canonicalized locale identifiers) and returns a List of Unicode canonicalized locale identifiers. It returns the subset of the provided BCP 47 language priority list requestedLocales for which availableLocales has a matching locale when using the BCP 47 Lookup algorithm. Locales appear in the same order in the returned list as in requestedLocales. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let subset be a new empty List.
  2. For each element locale of requestedLocales, do
    1. Let noExtensionsLocale be the String value that is locale with any Unicode locale extension sequences removed.
    2. Let availableLocale be BestAvailableLocale(availableLocales, noExtensionsLocale).
    3. If availableLocale is not undefined, append locale to subset.
  3. Return subset.

9.2.9 BestFitSupportedLocales ( availableLocales, requestedLocales )

The implementation-defined abstract operation BestFitSupportedLocales takes arguments availableLocales (a List of Unicode canonicalized locale identifiers) and requestedLocales (a List of Unicode canonicalized locale identifiers) and returns a List of Unicode canonicalized locale identifiers. It returns the subset of the provided BCP 47 language priority list requestedLocales for which availableLocales has a matching locale when using the Best Fit Matcher algorithm. Locales appear in the same order in the returned list as in requestedLocales.

9.2.10 SupportedLocales ( availableLocales, requestedLocales, options )

The abstract operation SupportedLocales takes arguments availableLocales (a List of Unicode canonicalized locale identifiers), requestedLocales (a List of Unicode canonicalized locale identifiers), and options (an ECMAScript language value) and returns either a normal completion containing a List of Unicode canonicalized locale identifiers or a throw completion. It returns the subset of the provided BCP 47 language priority list requestedLocales for which availableLocales has a matching locale. Two algorithms are available to match the locales: the Lookup algorithm described in RFC 4647 section 3.4, and an implementation dependent best-fit algorithm. Locales appear in the same order in the returned list as in requestedLocales. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Set options to ? CoerceOptionsToObject(options).
  2. Let matcher be ? GetOption(options, "localeMatcher", string, « "lookup", "best fit" », "best fit").
  3. If matcher is "best fit", then
    1. Let supportedLocales be BestFitSupportedLocales(availableLocales, requestedLocales).
  4. Else,
    1. Let supportedLocales be LookupSupportedLocales(availableLocales, requestedLocales).
  5. Return CreateArrayFromList(supportedLocales).

9.2.11 GetOptionsObject ( options )

The abstract operation GetOptionsObject takes argument options (an ECMAScript language value) and returns either a normal completion containing an Object or a throw completion. It returns an Object suitable for use with GetOption, either options itself or a default empty Object. It throws a TypeError if options is not undefined and not an Object. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If options is undefined, then
    1. Return OrdinaryObjectCreate(null).
  2. If Type(options) is Object, then
    1. Return options.
  3. Throw a TypeError exception.

9.2.12 CoerceOptionsToObject ( options )

The abstract operation CoerceOptionsToObject takes argument options (an ECMAScript language value) and returns either a normal completion containing an Object or a throw completion. It coerces options into an Object suitable for use with GetOption, defaulting to an empty Object. Because it coerces non-null primitive values into objects, its use is discouraged for new functionality in favour of GetOptionsObject. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If options is undefined, then
    1. Return OrdinaryObjectCreate(null).
  2. Return ? ToObject(options).

9.2.13 GetOption ( options, property, type, values, default )

The abstract operation GetOption takes arguments options (an Object), property (a property key), type (boolean or string), values (empty or a List of ECMAScript language values), and default (required or an ECMAScript language value) and returns either a normal completion containing an ECMAScript language value or a throw completion. It extracts the value of the specified property of options, converts it to the required type, checks whether it is allowed by values if values is not empty, and substitutes default if the value is undefined. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let value be ? Get(options, property).
  2. If value is undefined, then
    1. If default is required, throw a RangeError exception.
    2. Return default.
  3. If type is boolean, then
    1. Set value to ToBoolean(value).
  4. Else,
    1. Assert: type is string.
    2. Set value to ? ToString(value).
  5. If values is not empty and values does not contain value, throw a RangeError exception.
  6. Return value.

9.2.14 GetBooleanOrStringNumberFormatOption ( options, property, stringValues, fallback )

The abstract operation GetBooleanOrStringNumberFormatOption takes arguments options (an Object), property (a property key), stringValues (a List of Strings), and fallback (an ECMAScript language value) and returns either a normal completion containing either a Boolean, String, or fallback, or a throw completion. It extracts the value of the property named property from the provided options object. It returns fallback if that value is undefined, true if that value is true, false if that value coerces to false, and otherwise coerces it to a String and returns the result if it is allowed by stringValues. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let value be ? Get(options, property).
  2. If value is undefined, return fallback.
  3. If value is true, return true.
  4. If ToBoolean(value) is false, return false.
  5. Set value to ? ToString(value).
  6. If stringValues does not contain value, throw a RangeError exception.
  7. Return value.

9.2.15 DefaultNumberOption ( value, minimum, maximum, fallback )

The abstract operation DefaultNumberOption takes arguments value (an ECMAScript language value), minimum (an integer), maximum (an integer), and fallback (an integer or undefined) and returns either a normal completion containing either an integer or undefined, or a throw completion. It converts value to an integer, checks whether it is in the allowed range, and fills in a fallback value if necessary. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If value is undefined, return fallback.
  2. Set value to ? ToNumber(value).
  3. If value is not finite or (value) < minimum or (value) > maximum, throw a RangeError exception.
  4. Return floor((value)).

9.2.16 GetNumberOption ( options, property, minimum, maximum, fallback )

The abstract operation GetNumberOption takes arguments options (an Object), property (a String), minimum (an integer), maximum (an integer), and fallback (an integer or undefined) and returns either a normal completion containing either an integer or undefined, or a throw completion. It extracts the value of the property named property from the provided options object, converts it to an integer, checks whether it is in the allowed range, and fills in a fallback value if necessary. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let value be ? Get(options, property).
  2. Return ? DefaultNumberOption(value, minimum, maximum, fallback).

9.2.17 PartitionPattern ( pattern )

The abstract operation PartitionPattern takes argument pattern (a String) and returns a List of Records with fields [[Type]] (a String) and [[Value]] (a String or undefined). The [[Value]] field will be a String value if [[Type]] is "literal", and undefined otherwise. The syntax of the abstract pattern strings is an implementation detail and is not exposed to users of ECMA-402. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let result be a new empty List.
  2. Let beginIndex be StringIndexOf(pattern, "{", 0).
  3. Let endIndex be 0.
  4. Let nextIndex be 0.
  5. Let length be the number of code units in pattern.
  6. Repeat, while beginIndex is an integer index into pattern,
    1. Set endIndex to StringIndexOf(pattern, "}", beginIndex).
    2. Assert: endIndex is greater than beginIndex.
    3. If beginIndex is greater than nextIndex, then
      1. Let literal be a substring of pattern from position nextIndex, inclusive, to position beginIndex, exclusive.
      2. Append the Record { [[Type]]: "literal", [[Value]]: literal } to result.
    4. Let p be the substring of pattern from position beginIndex, exclusive, to position endIndex, exclusive.
    5. Append the Record { [[Type]]: p, [[Value]]: undefined } to result.
    6. Set nextIndex to endIndex + 1.
    7. Set beginIndex to StringIndexOf(pattern, "{", nextIndex).
  7. If nextIndex is less than length, then
    1. Let literal be the substring of pattern from position nextIndex, inclusive, to position length, exclusive.
    2. Append the Record { [[Type]]: "literal", [[Value]]: literal } to result.
  8. Return result.

10 Collator Objects

10.1 The Intl.Collator Constructor

The Intl.Collator constructor is the %Intl.Collator% intrinsic object and a standard built-in property of the Intl object. Behaviour common to all service constructor properties of the Intl object is specified in 9.1.

10.1.1 Intl.Collator ( [ locales [ , options ] ] )

When the Intl.Collator function is called with optional arguments locales and options, the following steps are taken:

  1. If NewTarget is undefined, let newTarget be the active function object, else let newTarget be NewTarget.
  2. Let internalSlotsList be « [[InitializedCollator]], [[Locale]], [[Usage]], [[Sensitivity]], [[IgnorePunctuation]], [[Collation]], [[BoundCompare]] ».
  3. If %Intl.Collator%.[[RelevantExtensionKeys]] contains "kn", then
    1. Append [[Numeric]] to internalSlotsList.
  4. If %Intl.Collator%.[[RelevantExtensionKeys]] contains "kf", then
    1. Append [[CaseFirst]] to internalSlotsList.
  5. Let collator be ? OrdinaryCreateFromConstructor(newTarget, "%Intl.Collator.prototype%", internalSlotsList).
  6. Return ? InitializeCollator(collator, locales, options).

10.1.2 InitializeCollator ( collator, locales, options )

The abstract operation InitializeCollator takes arguments collator (an Intl.Collator), locales (an ECMAScript language value), and options (an ECMAScript language value) and returns either a normal completion containing collator or a throw completion. It initializes collator as a Collator object. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let requestedLocales be ? CanonicalizeLocaleList(locales).
  2. Set options to ? CoerceOptionsToObject(options).
  3. Let usage be ? GetOption(options, "usage", string, « "sort", "search" », "sort").
  4. Set collator.[[Usage]] to usage.
  5. If usage is "sort", then
    1. Let localeData be %Intl.Collator%.[[SortLocaleData]].
  6. Else,
    1. Let localeData be %Intl.Collator%.[[SearchLocaleData]].
  7. Let opt be a new Record.
  8. Let matcher be ? GetOption(options, "localeMatcher", string, « "lookup", "best fit" », "best fit").
  9. Set opt.[[localeMatcher]] to matcher.
  10. Let collation be ? GetOption(options, "collation", string, empty, undefined).
  11. If collation is not undefined, then
    1. If collation cannot be matched by the type Unicode locale nonterminal, throw a RangeError exception.
  12. Set opt.[[co]] to collation.
  13. Let numeric be ? GetOption(options, "numeric", boolean, empty, undefined).
  14. If numeric is not undefined, then
    1. Set numeric to ! ToString(numeric).
  15. Set opt.[[kn]] to numeric.
  16. Let caseFirst be ? GetOption(options, "caseFirst", string, « "upper", "lower", "false" », undefined).
  17. Set opt.[[kf]] to caseFirst.
  18. Let relevantExtensionKeys be %Intl.Collator%.[[RelevantExtensionKeys]].
  19. Let r be ResolveLocale(%Intl.Collator%.[[AvailableLocales]], requestedLocales, opt, relevantExtensionKeys, localeData).
  20. Set collator.[[Locale]] to r.[[Locale]].
  21. Set collation to r.[[co]].
  22. If collation is null, set collation to "default".
  23. Set collator.[[Collation]] to collation.
  24. If relevantExtensionKeys contains "kn", then
    1. Set collator.[[Numeric]] to SameValue(r.[[kn]], "true").
  25. If relevantExtensionKeys contains "kf", then
    1. Set collator.[[CaseFirst]] to r.[[kf]].
  26. Let resolvedLocaleData be r.[[LocaleData]].
  27. Let sensitivity be ? GetOption(options, "sensitivity", string, « "base", "accent", "case", "variant" », undefined).
  28. If sensitivity is undefined, then
    1. If usage is "sort", then
      1. Set sensitivity to "variant".
    2. Else,
      1. Set sensitivity to resolvedLocaleData.[[sensitivity]].
  29. Set collator.[[Sensitivity]] to sensitivity.
  30. Let defaultIgnorePunctuation be resolvedLocaleData.[[ignorePunctuation]].
  31. Let ignorePunctuation be ? GetOption(options, "ignorePunctuation", boolean, empty, defaultIgnorePunctuation).
  32. Set collator.[[IgnorePunctuation]] to ignorePunctuation.
  33. Return collator.
Note
The collation associated with the "search" value for the "usage" option should only be used to find matching strings, since this collation is not guaranteed to be in any particular order. This behaviour is described in Unicode Technical Standard #35 Part 1 Core, Unicode Collation Identifier and Unicode Technical Standard #10 Unicode Collation Algorithm, Searching and Matching.

10.2 Properties of the Intl.Collator Constructor

The Intl.Collator constructor has the following properties:

10.2.1 Intl.Collator.prototype

The value of Intl.Collator.prototype is %Intl.Collator.prototype%.

This property has the attributes { [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: false }.

10.2.2 Intl.Collator.supportedLocalesOf ( locales [ , options ] )

When the supportedLocalesOf method is called with arguments locales and options, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let availableLocales be %Intl.Collator%.[[AvailableLocales]].
  2. Let requestedLocales be ? CanonicalizeLocaleList(locales).
  3. Return ? SupportedLocales(availableLocales, requestedLocales, options).

10.2.3 Internal slots

The value of the [[AvailableLocales]] internal slot is implementation-defined within the constraints described in 9.1. The value of the [[RelevantExtensionKeys]] internal slot is a List that must include the element "co", may include any or all of the elements "kf" and "kn", and must not include any other elements.

Note
Unicode Technical Standard #35 Part 1 Core, Section 3.6.1 Key and Type Definitions describes ten locale extension keys that are relevant to collation: "co" for collator usage and specializations, "ka" for alternate handling, "kb" for backward second level weight, "kc" for case level, "kf" for case first, "kh" for hiragana quaternary, "kk" for normalization, "kn" for numeric, "kr" for reordering, "ks" for collation strength, and "vt" for variable top. Collator, however, requires that the usage is specified through the "usage" property of the options object, alternate handling through the "ignorePunctuation" property of the options object, and case level and the strength through the "sensitivity" property of the options object. The "co" key in the language tag is supported only for collator specializations, and the keys "kb", "kh", "kk", "kr", and "vt" are not allowed in this version of the Internationalization API. Support for the remaining keys is implementation dependent.

The values of the [[SortLocaleData]] and [[SearchLocaleData]] internal slots are implementation-defined within the constraints described in 9.1 and the following additional constraints, for all locale values locale:

  • The first element of [[SortLocaleData]].[[<locale>]].[[co]] and [[SearchLocaleData]].[[<locale>]].[[co]] must be null.
  • The values "standard" and "search" must not be used as elements in any [[SortLocaleData]].[[<locale>]].[[co]] and [[SearchLocaleData]].[[<locale>]].[[co]] list.
  • [[SearchLocaleData]].[[<locale>]] must have a [[sensitivity]] field with a String value equal to "base", "accent", "case", or "variant".
  • [[SearchLocaleData]].[[<locale>]] and [[SortLocaleData]].[[<locale>]] must have an [[ignorePunctuation]] field with a Boolean value.

10.3 Properties of the Intl.Collator Prototype Object

The Intl.Collator prototype object is itself an ordinary object. %Intl.Collator.prototype% is not an Intl.Collator instance and does not have an [[InitializedCollator]] internal slot or any of the other internal slots of Intl.Collator instance objects.

10.3.1 Intl.Collator.prototype.constructor

The initial value of Intl.Collator.prototype.constructor is %Intl.Collator%.

10.3.2 Intl.Collator.prototype [ @@toStringTag ]

The initial value of the @@toStringTag property is the String value "Intl.Collator".

This property has the attributes { [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: true }.

10.3.3 get Intl.Collator.prototype.compare

This named accessor property returns a function that compares two strings according to the sort order of this Collator object.

Intl.Collator.prototype.compare is an accessor property whose set accessor function is undefined. Its get accessor function performs the following steps:

  1. Let collator be the this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(collator, [[InitializedCollator]]).
  3. If collator.[[BoundCompare]] is undefined, then
    1. Let F be a new built-in function object as defined in 10.3.3.1.
    2. Set F.[[Collator]] to collator.
    3. Set collator.[[BoundCompare]] to F.
  4. Return collator.[[BoundCompare]].
Note
The returned function is bound to collator so that it can be passed directly to Array.prototype.sort or other functions.

10.3.3.1 Collator Compare Functions

A Collator compare function is an anonymous built-in function that has a [[Collator]] internal slot.

When a Collator compare function F is called with arguments x and y, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let collator be F.[[Collator]].
  2. Assert: Type(collator) is Object and collator has an [[InitializedCollator]] internal slot.
  3. If x is not provided, let x be undefined.
  4. If y is not provided, let y be undefined.
  5. Let X be ? ToString(x).
  6. Let Y be ? ToString(y).
  7. Return CompareStrings(collator, X, Y).

The "length" property of a Collator compare function is 2𝔽.

10.3.3.2 CompareStrings ( collator, x, y )

The implementation-defined abstract operation CompareStrings takes arguments collator (an Intl.Collator), x (a String), and y (a String) and returns a Number, but not NaN. The returned Number represents the result of an implementation-defined locale-sensitive String comparison of x with y. The result is intended to correspond with a sort order of String values according to the effective locale and collation options of collator, and will be negative when x is ordered before y, positive when x is ordered after y, and zero in all other cases (representing no relative ordering between x and y). String values must be interpreted as UTF-16 code unit sequences as described in es2024, 6.1.4, and a surrogate pair (a code unit in the range 0xD800 to 0xDBFF followed by a code unit in the range 0xDC00 to 0xDFFF) within a string must be interpreted as the corresponding code point.

Behaviour as described below depends upon locale-sensitive identification of the sequence of collation elements for a string, in particular "base letters", and different base letters always compare as unequal (causing the strings containing them to also compare as unequal). Results of comparing variations of the same base letter with different case, diacritic marks, or potentially other aspects further depends upon collator.[[Sensitivity]] as follows:

Table 3: Effects of Collator Sensitivity
[[Sensitivity]] Description "a" vs. "á" "a" vs. "A"
"base" Characters with the same base letter do not compare as unequal, regardless of differences in case and/or diacritic marks. equal equal
"accent" Characters with the same base letter compare as unequal only if they differ in accents and/or other diacritic marks, regardless of differences in case. not equal equal
"case" Characters with the same base letter compare as unequal only if they differ in case, regardless of differences in accents and/or other diacritic marks. equal not equal
"variant" Characters with the same base letter compare as unequal if they differ in case, diacritic marks, and/or potentially other differences. not equal not equal
Note 1
The mapping from input code points to base letters can include arbitrary contractions, expansions, and collisions, including those that apply special treatment to certain characters with diacritic marks. For example, in Swedish, "ö" is a base letter that differs from "o", and "v" and "w" are considered to be the same base letter. In Slovak, "ch" is a single base letter, and in English, "æ" is a sequence of base letters starting with "a" and ending with "e".

If collator.[[IgnorePunctuation]] is true, then punctuation is ignored (e.g., strings that differ only in punctuation compare as equal).

For the interpretation of options settable through locale extension keys, see Unicode Technical Standard #35 Part 1 Core, Section 3.6.1 Key and Type Definitions.

The actual return values are implementation-defined to permit encoding additional information in them, but this operation for any given collator, when considered as a function of x and y, is required to be a consistent comparator defining a total ordering on the set of all Strings. This operation is also required to recognize and honour canonical equivalence according to the Unicode Standard, including returning +0𝔽 when comparing distinguishable Strings that are canonically equivalent.

Note 2
It is recommended that the CompareStrings abstract operation be implemented following Unicode Technical Standard #10: Unicode Collation Algorithm, using tailorings for the effective locale and collation options of collator. It is recommended that implementations use the tailorings provided by the Common Locale Data Repository (available at https://cldr.unicode.org/).
Note 3
Applications should not assume that the behaviour of the CompareStrings abstract operation for Collator instances with the same resolved options will remain the same for different versions of the same implementation.

10.3.4 Intl.Collator.prototype.resolvedOptions ( )

This function provides access to the locale and options computed during initialization of the object.

  1. Let collator be the this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(collator, [[InitializedCollator]]).
  3. Let options be OrdinaryObjectCreate(%Object.prototype%).
  4. For each row of Table 4, except the header row, in table order, do
    1. Let p be the Property value of the current row.
    2. Let v be the value of collator's internal slot whose name is the Internal Slot value of the current row.
    3. If the current row has an Extension Key value, then
      1. Let extensionKey be the Extension Key value of the current row.
      2. If %Intl.Collator%.[[RelevantExtensionKeys]] does not contain extensionKey, then
        1. Set v to undefined.
    4. If v is not undefined, then
      1. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(options, p, v).
  5. Return options.
Table 4: Resolved Options of Collator Instances
Internal Slot Property Extension Key
[[Locale]] "locale"
[[Usage]] "usage"
[[Sensitivity]] "sensitivity"
[[IgnorePunctuation]] "ignorePunctuation"
[[Collation]] "collation"
[[Numeric]] "numeric" "kn"
[[CaseFirst]] "caseFirst" "kf"

10.4 Properties of Intl.Collator Instances

Intl.Collator instances are ordinary objects that inherit properties from %Intl.Collator.prototype%.

Intl.Collator instances have an [[InitializedCollator]] internal slot.

Intl.Collator instances also have several internal slots that are computed by the constructor:

  • [[Locale]] is a String value with the language tag of the locale whose localization is used for collation.
  • [[Usage]] is one of the String values "sort" or "search", identifying the collator usage.
  • [[Sensitivity]] is one of the String values "base", "accent", "case", or "variant", identifying the collator's sensitivity.
  • [[IgnorePunctuation]] is a Boolean value, specifying whether punctuation should be ignored in comparisons.
  • [[Collation]] is a String value with the "type" given in Unicode Technical Standard #35 Part 1 Core, Section 3.6.1 Key and Type Definitions for the collation, except that the values "standard" and "search" are not allowed, while the value "default" is allowed.

Intl.Collator instances also have the following internal slots if the key corresponding to the name of the internal slot in Table 4 is included in the [[RelevantExtensionKeys]] internal slot of Intl.Collator:

  • [[Numeric]] is a Boolean value, specifying whether numeric sorting is used.
  • [[CaseFirst]] is one of the String values "upper", "lower", or "false".

Finally, Intl.Collator instances have a [[BoundCompare]] internal slot that caches the function returned by the compare accessor (10.3.3).

11 DateTimeFormat Objects

11.1 The Intl.DateTimeFormat Constructor

The Intl.DateTimeFormat constructor is the %Intl.DateTimeFormat% intrinsic object and a standard built-in property of the Intl object. Behaviour common to all service constructor properties of the Intl object is specified in 9.1.

11.1.1 Intl.DateTimeFormat ( [ locales [ , options ] ] )

When the Intl.DateTimeFormat function is called with optional arguments locales and options, the following steps are taken:

  1. If NewTarget is undefined, let newTarget be the active function object, else let newTarget be NewTarget.
  2. Let dateTimeFormat be ? CreateDateTimeFormat(newTarget, locales, options, any, date).
  3. If the implementation supports the normative optional constructor mode of 4.3 Note 1, then
    1. Let this be the this value.
    2. Return ? ChainDateTimeFormat(dateTimeFormat, NewTarget, this).
  4. Return dateTimeFormat.

11.1.1.1 ChainDateTimeFormat ( dateTimeFormat, newTarget, this )

The abstract operation ChainDateTimeFormat takes arguments dateTimeFormat (an Intl.DateTimeFormat), newTarget (an ECMAScript language value), and this (an ECMAScript language value) and returns either a normal completion containing an Object or a throw completion. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If newTarget is undefined and ? OrdinaryHasInstance(%Intl.DateTimeFormat%, this) is true, then
    1. Perform ? DefinePropertyOrThrow(this, %Intl%.[[FallbackSymbol]], PropertyDescriptor{ [[Value]]: dateTimeFormat, [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: false }).
    2. Return this.
  2. Return dateTimeFormat.

11.1.2 CreateDateTimeFormat ( newTarget, locales, options, required, defaults )

The abstract operation CreateDateTimeFormat takes arguments newTarget (a constructor), locales (an ECMAScript language value), options (an ECMAScript language value), required (date, time, or any), and defaults (date, time, or all) and returns either a normal completion containing a DateTimeFormat object or a throw completion. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let dateTimeFormat be ? OrdinaryCreateFromConstructor(newTarget, "%Intl.DateTimeFormat.prototype%", « [[InitializedDateTimeFormat]], [[Locale]], [[Calendar]], [[NumberingSystem]], [[TimeZone]], [[Weekday]], [[Era]], [[Year]], [[Month]], [[Day]], [[DayPeriod]], [[Hour]], [[Minute]], [[Second]], [[FractionalSecondDigits]], [[TimeZoneName]], [[HourCycle]], [[DateStyle]], [[TimeStyle]], [[Pattern]], [[RangePatterns]], [[BoundFormat]] »).
  2. Let requestedLocales be ? CanonicalizeLocaleList(locales).
  3. Set options to ? CoerceOptionsToObject(options).
  4. Let opt be a new Record.
  5. Let matcher be ? GetOption(options, "localeMatcher", string, « "lookup", "best fit" », "best fit").
  6. Set opt.[[localeMatcher]] to matcher.
  7. Let calendar be ? GetOption(options, "calendar", string, empty, undefined).
  8. If calendar is not undefined, then
    1. If calendar cannot be matched by the type Unicode locale nonterminal, throw a RangeError exception.
  9. Set opt.[[ca]] to calendar.
  10. Let numberingSystem be ? GetOption(options, "numberingSystem", string, empty, undefined).
  11. If numberingSystem is not undefined, then
    1. If numberingSystem cannot be matched by the type Unicode locale nonterminal, throw a RangeError exception.
  12. Set opt.[[nu]] to numberingSystem.
  13. Let hour12 be ? GetOption(options, "hour12", boolean, empty, undefined).
  14. Let hourCycle be ? GetOption(options, "hourCycle", string, « "h11", "h12", "h23", "h24" », undefined).
  15. If hour12 is not undefined, then
    1. Set hourCycle to null.
  16. Set opt.[[hc]] to hourCycle.
  17. Let r be ResolveLocale(%Intl.DateTimeFormat%.[[AvailableLocales]], requestedLocales, opt, %Intl.DateTimeFormat%.[[RelevantExtensionKeys]], %Intl.DateTimeFormat%.[[LocaleData]]).
  18. Set dateTimeFormat.[[Locale]] to r.[[Locale]].
  19. Let resolvedCalendar be r.[[ca]].
  20. Set dateTimeFormat.[[Calendar]] to resolvedCalendar.
  21. Set dateTimeFormat.[[NumberingSystem]] to r.[[nu]].
  22. Let resolvedLocaleData be r.[[LocaleData]].
  23. If hour12 is true, then
    1. Let hc be resolvedLocaleData.[[hourCycle12]].
  24. Else if hour12 is false, then
    1. Let hc be resolvedLocaleData.[[hourCycle24]].
  25. Else,
    1. Assert: hour12 is undefined.
    2. Let hc be r.[[hc]].
    3. If hc is null, set hc to resolvedLocaleData.[[hourCycle]].
  26. Set dateTimeFormat.[[HourCycle]] to hc.
  27. Let timeZone be ? Get(options, "timeZone").
  28. If timeZone is undefined, then
    1. Set timeZone to SystemTimeZoneIdentifier().
  29. Else,
    1. Set timeZone to ? ToString(timeZone).
  30. If IsTimeZoneOffsetString(timeZone) is true, then
    1. Let parseResult be ParseText(StringToCodePoints(timeZone), UTCOffset).
    2. Assert: parseResult is a Parse Node.
    3. If parseResult contains more than one MinuteSecond Parse Node, throw a RangeError exception.
    4. Let offsetNanoseconds be ParseTimeZoneOffsetString(timeZone).
    5. Let offsetMinutes be offsetNanoseconds / (6 × 1010).
    6. Assert: offsetMinutes is an integer.
    7. Set timeZone to FormatOffsetTimeZoneIdentifier(offsetMinutes).
  31. Else if IsValidTimeZoneName(timeZone) is true, then
    1. Set timeZone to CanonicalizeTimeZoneName(timeZone).
  32. Else,
    1. Throw a RangeError exception.
  33. Set dateTimeFormat.[[TimeZone]] to timeZone.
  34. Let formatOptions be a new Record.
  35. Set formatOptions.[[hourCycle]] to hc.
  36. Let hasExplicitFormatComponents be false.
  37. For each row of Table 7, except the header row, in table order, do
    1. Let prop be the name given in the Property column of the current row.
    2. If prop is "fractionalSecondDigits", then
      1. Let value be ? GetNumberOption(options, "fractionalSecondDigits", 1, 3, undefined).
    3. Else,
      1. Let values be a List whose elements are the strings given in the Values column of the current row.
      2. Let value be ? GetOption(options, prop, string, values, undefined).
    4. Set formatOptions.[[<prop>]] to value.
    5. If value is not undefined, then
      1. Set hasExplicitFormatComponents to true.
  38. Let formatMatcher be ? GetOption(options, "formatMatcher", string, « "basic", "best fit" », "best fit").
  39. Let dateStyle be ? GetOption(options, "dateStyle", string, « "full", "long", "medium", "short" », undefined).
  40. Set dateTimeFormat.[[DateStyle]] to dateStyle.
  41. Let timeStyle be ? GetOption(options, "timeStyle", string, « "full", "long", "medium", "short" », undefined).
  42. Set dateTimeFormat.[[TimeStyle]] to timeStyle.
  43. If dateStyle is not undefined or timeStyle is not undefined, then
    1. If hasExplicitFormatComponents is true, then
      1. Throw a TypeError exception.
    2. If required is date and timeStyle is not undefined, then
      1. Throw a TypeError exception.
    3. If required is time and dateStyle is not undefined, then
      1. Throw a TypeError exception.
    4. Let styles be resolvedLocaleData.[[styles]].[[<resolvedCalendar>]].
    5. Let bestFormat be DateTimeStyleFormat(dateStyle, timeStyle, styles).
  44. Else,
    1. Let needDefaults be true.
    2. If required is date or any, then
      1. For each property name prop of « "weekday", "year", "month", "day" », do
        1. Let value be formatOptions.[[<prop>]].
        2. If value is not undefined, set needDefaults to false.
    3. If required is time or any, then
      1. For each property name prop of « "dayPeriod", "hour", "minute", "second", "fractionalSecondDigits" », do
        1. Let value be formatOptions.[[<prop>]].
        2. If value is not undefined, set needDefaults to false.
    4. If needDefaults is true and defaults is either date or all, then
      1. For each property name prop of « "year", "month", "day" », do
        1. Set formatOptions.[[<prop>]] to "numeric".
    5. If needDefaults is true and defaults is either time or all, then
      1. For each property name prop of « "hour", "minute", "second" », do
        1. Set formatOptions.[[<prop>]] to "numeric".
    6. Let formats be resolvedLocaleData.[[formats]].[[<resolvedCalendar>]].
    7. If formatMatcher is "basic", then
      1. Let bestFormat be BasicFormatMatcher(formatOptions, formats).
    8. Else,
      1. Let bestFormat be BestFitFormatMatcher(formatOptions, formats).
  45. For each row of Table 7, except the header row, in table order, do
    1. Let prop be the name given in the Property column of the current row.
    2. If bestFormat has a field [[<prop>]], then
      1. Let p be bestFormat.[[<prop>]].
      2. Set dateTimeFormat's internal slot whose name is the Internal Slot column of the current row to p.
  46. If dateTimeFormat.[[Hour]] is undefined, then
    1. Set dateTimeFormat.[[HourCycle]] to undefined.
  47. If dateTimeFormat.[[HourCycle]] is "h11" or "h12", then
    1. Let pattern be bestFormat.[[pattern12]].
    2. Let rangePatterns be bestFormat.[[rangePatterns12]].
  48. Else,
    1. Let pattern be bestFormat.[[pattern]].
    2. Let rangePatterns be bestFormat.[[rangePatterns]].
  49. Set dateTimeFormat.[[Pattern]] to pattern.
  50. Set dateTimeFormat.[[RangePatterns]] to rangePatterns.
  51. Return dateTimeFormat.

11.1.3 FormatOffsetTimeZoneIdentifier ( offsetMinutes )

The abstract operation FormatOffsetTimeZoneIdentifier takes argument offsetMinutes (an integer) and returns a String. It formats a UTC offset, in minutes, into a UTC offset string formatted like ±HH:MM. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If offsetMinutes ≥ 0, let sign be the code unit 0x002B (PLUS SIGN); otherwise, let sign be the code unit 0x002D (HYPHEN-MINUS).
  2. Let absoluteMinutes be abs(offsetMinutes).
  3. Let hours be floor(absoluteMinutes / 60).
  4. Let minutes be absoluteMinutes modulo 60.
  5. Return the string-concatenation of sign, ToZeroPaddedDecimalString(hours, 2), the code unit 0x003A (COLON), and ToZeroPaddedDecimalString(minutes, 2).

11.2 Properties of the Intl.DateTimeFormat Constructor

The Intl.DateTimeFormat constructor has the following properties:

11.2.1 Intl.DateTimeFormat.prototype

The value of Intl.DateTimeFormat.prototype is %Intl.DateTimeFormat.prototype%.

This property has the attributes { [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: false }.

11.2.2 Intl.DateTimeFormat.supportedLocalesOf ( locales [ , options ] )

When the supportedLocalesOf method is called with arguments locales and options, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let availableLocales be %Intl.DateTimeFormat%.[[AvailableLocales]].
  2. Let requestedLocales be ? CanonicalizeLocaleList(locales).
  3. Return ? SupportedLocales(availableLocales, requestedLocales, options).

11.2.3 Internal slots

The value of the [[AvailableLocales]] internal slot is implementation-defined within the constraints described in 9.1.

The value of the [[RelevantExtensionKeys]] internal slot is « "ca", "hc", "nu" ».

Note 1
Unicode Technical Standard #35 Part 1 Core, Section 3.6.1 Key and Type Definitions describes four locale extension keys that are relevant to date and time formatting: "ca" for calendar, "hc" for hour cycle, "nu" for numbering system (of formatted numbers), and "tz" for time zone. DateTimeFormat, however, requires that the time zone is specified through the "timeZone" property in the options objects.

The value of the [[LocaleData]] internal slot is implementation-defined within the constraints described in 9.1 and the following additional constraints, for all locale values locale:

  • [[LocaleData]].[[<locale>]].[[nu]] must be a List that does not include the values "native", "traditio", or "finance".
  • [[LocaleData]].[[<locale>]].[[hc]] must be « null, "h11", "h12", "h23", "h24" ».
  • [[LocaleData]].[[<locale>]].[[hourCycle]] must be a String value equal to "h11", "h12", "h23", or "h24".
  • [[LocaleData]].[[<locale>]].[[hourCycle12]] must be a String value equal to "h11" or "h12".
  • [[LocaleData]].[[<locale>]].[[hourCycle24]] must be a String value equal to "h23" or "h24".
  • [[LocaleData]].[[<locale>]] must have a [[formats]] field. This [[formats]] field must be a Record with [[<calendar>]] fields for all calendar values calendar. The value of this field must be a list of records, each of which has a subset of the fields shown in Table 7, where each field must have one of the values specified for the field in Table 7. Multiple records in a list may use the same subset of the fields as long as they have different values for the fields. The following subsets must be available for each locale:
    • weekday, year, month, day, hour, minute, second, fractionalSecondDigits
    • weekday, year, month, day, hour, minute, second
    • weekday, year, month, day
    • year, month, day
    • year, month
    • month, day
    • hour, minute, second, fractionalSecondDigits
    • hour, minute, second
    • hour, minute
    • dayPeriod, hour
    • dayPeriod, hour, minute, second
    • dayPeriod, hour, minute
    Each of the records must also have the following fields:
    1. A [[pattern]] field, whose value is a String value that contains for each of the date and time format component fields of the record a substring starting with "{", followed by the name of the field, followed by "}".
    2. If the record has an [[hour]] field, it must also have a [[pattern12]] field, whose value is a String value that, in addition to the substrings of the [[pattern]] field, contains at least one of the substrings "{ampm}" or "{dayPeriod}".
    3. If the record has a [[year]] field, the [[pattern]] and [[pattern12]] values may contain the substrings "{yearName}" and "{relatedYear}".
    4. A [[rangePatterns]] field with a Record value:
      • The [[rangePatterns]] record may have any of the fields in Table 5, where each field represents a range pattern and its value is a Record.
        • The name of the field indicates the largest calendar element that must be different between the start and end dates in order to use this range pattern. For example, if the field name is [[Month]], it contains the range pattern that should be used to format a date range where the era and year values are the same, but the month value is different.
        • The record will contain the following fields:
          • A subset of the fields shown in the Property column of Table 7, where each field must have one of the values specified for that field in the Values column of Table 7. All fields required to format a date for any of the [[PatternParts]] records must be present.
          • A [[PatternParts]] field whose value is a list of Records each representing a part of the range pattern. Each record contains a [[Pattern]] field and a [[Source]] field. The [[Pattern]] field's value is a String of the same format as the regular date pattern String. The [[Source]] field is one of the String values "shared", "startRange", or "endRange". It indicates which of the range's dates should be formatted using the value of the [[Pattern]] field.
      • The [[rangePatterns]] record must have a [[Default]] field which contains the default range pattern used when the specific range pattern is not available. Its value is a list of records with the same structure as the other fields in the [[rangePatterns]] record.
    5. If the record has an [[hour]] field, it must also have a [[rangePatterns12]] field. Its value is similar to the Record in [[rangePatterns]], but it uses a String similar to [[pattern12]] for each part of the range pattern.
    6. If the record has a [[year]] field, the [[rangePatterns]] and [[rangePatterns12]] fields may contain range patterns where the [[Pattern]] values may contain the substrings "{yearName}" and "{relatedYear}".
  • [[LocaleData]].[[<locale>]] must have a [[styles]] field. The [[styles]] field must be a Record with [[<calendar>]] fields for all calendar values calendar. The calendar records must contain [[DateFormat]], [[TimeFormat]], [[DateTimeFormat]] and [[DateTimeRangeFormat]] fields, the value of these fields are Records, where each of which has [[full]], [[long]], [[medium]] and [[short]] fields. For [[DateFormat]] and [[TimeFormat]], the value of these fields must be a record, which has a subset of the fields shown in Table 7, where each field must have one of the values specified for the field in Table 7. Each of the records must also have the following fields:
    1. A [[pattern]] field, whose value is a String value that contains for each of the date and time format component fields of the record a substring starting with "{", followed by the name of the field, followed by "}".
    2. If the record has an [[hour]] field, it must also have a [[pattern12]] field, whose value is a String value that, in addition to the substrings of the pattern field, contains at least one of the substrings "{ampm}" or "{dayPeriod}".
    3. A [[rangePatterns]] field that contains a record similar to the one described in the [[formats]] field.
    4. If the record has an [[hour]] field, it must also have a [[rangePatterns12]] field. Its value is similar to the record in [[rangePatterns]] but it uses a string similar to [[pattern12]] for each range pattern.
    For [[DateTimeFormat]], the field value must be a string pattern which contains the strings "{0}" and "{1}". For [[DateTimeRangeFormat]] the value of these fields must be a nested record which also has [[full]], [[long]], [[medium]] and [[short]] fields. The [[full]], [[long]], [[medium]] and [[short]] fields in the enclosing record refer to the date style of the range pattern, while the fields in the nested record refers to the time style of the range pattern. The value of these fields in the nested record is a record with a [[rangePatterns]] field and a [[rangePatterns12]] field which are similar to the [[rangePatterns]] and [rangePatterns12]] fields in [[DateFormat]] and [[TimeFormat]].
Note 2
For example, an implementation might include the following record as part of its English locale data:
  • [[hour]]: "numeric"
  • [[minute]]: "numeric"
  • [[pattern]]: "{hour}:{minute}"
  • [[pattern12]]: "{hour}:{minute} {ampm}"
  • [[rangePatterns]]:
    • [[Hour]]:
      • [[hour]]: "numeric"
      • [[minute]]: "numeric"
      • [[PatternParts]]:
        • {[[Source]]: "startRange", [[Pattern]]: "{hour}:{minute}"}
        • {[[Source]]: "shared", [[Pattern]]: " – "}
        • {[[Source]]: "endRange", [[Pattern]]: "{hour}:{minute}"}
    • [[Minute]]:
      • [[hour]]: "numeric"
      • [[minute]]: "numeric"
      • [[PatternParts]]:
        • {[[Source]]: "startRange", [[Pattern]]: "{hour}:{minute}"}
        • {[[Source]]: "shared", [[Pattern]]: " – "}
        • {[[Source]]: "endRange", [[Pattern]]: "{hour}:{minute}"}
    • [[Default]]:
      • [[year]]: "2-digit"
      • [[month]]: "numeric"
      • [[day]]: "numeric"
      • [[hour]]: "numeric"
      • [[minute]]: "numeric"
      • [[PatternParts]]:
        • {[[Source]]: "startRange", [[Pattern]]: "{day}/{month}/{year}, {hour}:{minute}"}
        • {[[Source]]: "shared", [[Pattern]]: " – "}
        • {[[Source]]: "endRange", [[Pattern]]: "{day}/{month}/{year}, {hour}:{minute}"}
  • [[rangePatterns12]]:
    • [[Hour]]:
      • [[hour]]: "numeric"
      • [[minute]]: "numeric"
      • [[PatternParts]]:
        • {[[Source]]: "startRange", [[Pattern]]: "{hour}:{minute}"}
        • {[[Source]]: "shared", [[Pattern]]: " – "}
        • {[[Source]]: "endRange", [[Pattern]]: "{hour}:{minute}"}
        • {[[Source]]: "shared", [[Pattern]]: " {ampm}"}
    • [[Minute]]:
      • [[hour]]: "numeric"
      • [[minute]]: "numeric"
      • [[PatternParts]]:
        • {[[Source]]: "startRange", [[Pattern]]: "{hour}:{minute}"}
        • {[[Source]]: "shared", [[Pattern]]: " – "}
        • {[[Source]]: "endRange", [[Pattern]]: "{hour}:{minute}"}
        • {[[Source]]: "shared", [[Pattern]]: " {ampm}"}
    • [[Default]]:
      • [[year]]: "2-digit"
      • [[month]]: "numeric"
      • [[day]]: "numeric"
      • [[hour]]: "numeric"
      • [[minute]]: "numeric"
      • [[PatternParts]]:
        • {[[Source]]: "startRange", [[Pattern]]: "{day}/{month}/{year}, {hour}:{minute} {ampm}"}
        • {[[Source]]: "shared", [[Pattern]]: " – "}
        • {[[Source]]: "endRange", [[Pattern]]: "{day}/{month}/{year}, {hour}:{minute} {ampm}"}
Note 3
It is recommended that implementations use the locale data provided by the Common Locale Data Repository (available at https://cldr.unicode.org/).
Table 5: Range pattern fields
Range Pattern Field Pattern String Field
[[Era]] "era"
[[Year]] "year"
[[Month]] "month"
[[Day]] "day"
[[AmPm]] "ampm"
[[DayPeriod]] "dayPeriod"
[[Hour]] "hour"
[[Minute]] "minute"
[[Second]] "second"
[[FractionalSecondDigits]] "fractionalSecondDigits"

11.3 Properties of the Intl.DateTimeFormat Prototype Object

The Intl.DateTimeFormat prototype object is itself an ordinary object. %Intl.DateTimeFormat.prototype% is not an Intl.DateTimeFormat instance and does not have an [[InitializedDateTimeFormat]] internal slot or any of the other internal slots of Intl.DateTimeFormat instance objects.

11.3.1 Intl.DateTimeFormat.prototype.constructor

The initial value of Intl.DateTimeFormat.prototype.constructor is %Intl.DateTimeFormat%.

11.3.2 Intl.DateTimeFormat.prototype [ @@toStringTag ]

The initial value of the @@toStringTag property is the String value "Intl.DateTimeFormat".

This property has the attributes { [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: true }.

11.3.3 get Intl.DateTimeFormat.prototype.format

Intl.DateTimeFormat.prototype.format is an accessor property whose set accessor function is undefined. Its get accessor function performs the following steps:

  1. Let dtf be the this value.
  2. If the implementation supports the normative optional constructor mode of 4.3 Note 1, then
    1. Set dtf to ? UnwrapDateTimeFormat(dtf).
  3. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(dtf, [[InitializedDateTimeFormat]]).
  4. If dtf.[[BoundFormat]] is undefined, then
    1. Let F be a new built-in function object as defined in DateTime Format Functions (11.5.4).
    2. Set F.[[DateTimeFormat]] to dtf.
    3. Set dtf.[[BoundFormat]] to F.
  5. Return dtf.[[BoundFormat]].
Note
The returned function is bound to dtf so that it can be passed directly to Array.prototype.map or other functions. This is considered a historical artefact, as part of a convention which is no longer followed for new features, but is preserved to maintain compatibility with existing programs.

11.3.4 Intl.DateTimeFormat.prototype.formatToParts ( date )

When the formatToParts method is called with an argument date, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let dtf be the this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(dtf, [[InitializedDateTimeFormat]]).
  3. If date is undefined, then
    1. Let x be ! Call(%Date.now%, undefined).
  4. Else,
    1. Let x be ? ToNumber(date).
  5. Return ? FormatDateTimeToParts(dtf, x).

11.3.5 Intl.DateTimeFormat.prototype.formatRange ( startDate, endDate )

When the formatRange method is called with arguments startDate and endDate, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let dtf be this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(dtf, [[InitializedDateTimeFormat]]).
  3. If startDate is undefined or endDate is undefined, throw a TypeError exception.
  4. Let x be ? ToNumber(startDate).
  5. Let y be ? ToNumber(endDate).
  6. Return ? FormatDateTimeRange(dtf, x, y).

11.3.6 Intl.DateTimeFormat.prototype.formatRangeToParts ( startDate, endDate )

When the formatRangeToParts method is called with arguments startDate and endDate, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let dtf be this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(dtf, [[InitializedDateTimeFormat]]).
  3. If startDate is undefined or endDate is undefined, throw a TypeError exception.
  4. Let x be ? ToNumber(startDate).
  5. Let y be ? ToNumber(endDate).
  6. Return ? FormatDateTimeRangeToParts(dtf, x, y).

11.3.7 Intl.DateTimeFormat.prototype.resolvedOptions ( )

This function provides access to the locale and options computed during initialization of the object.

  1. Let dtf be the this value.
  2. If the implementation supports the normative optional constructor mode of 4.3 Note 1, then
    1. Set dtf to ? UnwrapDateTimeFormat(dtf).
  3. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(dtf, [[InitializedDateTimeFormat]]).
  4. Let options be OrdinaryObjectCreate(%Object.prototype%).
  5. For each row of Table 6, except the header row, in table order, do
    1. Let v be the value of dtf's internal slot whose name is the Internal Slot value of the current row.
    2. Let p be the Property value of the current row.
    3. If the Internal Slot value of the current row is an Internal Slot value in Table 7, then
      1. If dtf.[[DateStyle]] is not undefined or dtf.[[TimeStyle]] is not undefined, then
        1. Set v to undefined.
    4. If v is not undefined, then
      1. If there is a Conversion value in the current row, then
        1. Let conversion be the Conversion value of the current row.
        2. If conversion is hour12, then
          1. If v is "h11" or "h12", set v to true. Otherwise, set v to false.
        3. Else,
          1. Assert: conversion is number.
          2. Set v to 𝔽(v).
      2. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(options, p, v).
  6. Return options.
Table 6: Resolved Options of DateTimeFormat Instances
Internal Slot Property Conversion
[[Locale]] "locale"
[[Calendar]] "calendar"
[[NumberingSystem]] "numberingSystem"
[[TimeZone]] "timeZone"
[[HourCycle]] "hourCycle"
[[HourCycle]] "hour12" hour12
[[Weekday]] "weekday"
[[Era]] "era"
[[Year]] "year"
[[Month]] "month"
[[Day]] "day"
[[DayPeriod]] "dayPeriod"
[[Hour]] "hour"
[[Minute]] "minute"
[[Second]] "second"
[[FractionalSecondDigits]] "fractionalSecondDigits" number
[[TimeZoneName]] "timeZoneName"
[[DateStyle]] "dateStyle"
[[TimeStyle]] "timeStyle"

For web compatibility reasons, if the property "hourCycle" is set, the "hour12" property should be set to true when "hourCycle" is "h11" or "h12", or to false when "hourCycle" is "h23" or "h24".

Note 1
In this version of the API, the "timeZone" property will be the identifier of the host environment's time zone if no "timeZone" property was provided in the options object provided to the Intl.DateTimeFormat constructor. The first edition left the "timeZone" property undefined in this case.
Note 2
For compatibility with versions prior to the fifth edition, the "hour12" property is set in addition to the "hourCycle" property.

11.4 Properties of Intl.DateTimeFormat Instances

Intl.DateTimeFormat instances are ordinary objects that inherit properties from %Intl.DateTimeFormat.prototype%.

Intl.DateTimeFormat instances have an [[InitializedDateTimeFormat]] internal slot.

Intl.DateTimeFormat instances also have several internal slots that are computed by the constructor:

  • [[Locale]] is a String value with the language tag of the locale whose localization is used for formatting.
  • [[Calendar]] is a String value representing the Unicode Calendar Identifier used for formatting.
  • [[NumberingSystem]] is a String value representing the Unicode Number System Identifier used for formatting.
  • [[TimeZone]] is a String value used for formatting that is either a time zone identifier from the IANA Time Zone Database or a UTC offset in ISO 8601 extended format.
  • [[Weekday]], [[Era]], [[Year]], [[Month]], [[Day]], [[DayPeriod]], [[Hour]], [[Minute]], [[Second]], [[TimeZoneName]] are each either undefined, indicating that the component is not used for formatting, or one of the String values given in Table 7, indicating how the component should be presented in the formatted output.
  • [[FractionalSecondDigits]] is either undefined or a positive, non-zero integer indicating the fraction digits to be used for fractional seconds. Numbers will be rounded or padded with trailing zeroes if necessary.
  • [[HourCycle]] is a String value indicating whether the 12-hour format ("h11", "h12") or the 24-hour format ("h23", "h24") should be used. "h11" and "h23" start with hour 0 and go up to 11 and 23 respectively. "h12" and "h24" start with hour 1 and go up to 12 and 24. [[HourCycle]] is only used when [[Hour]] is not undefined.
  • [[DateStyle]], [[TimeStyle]] are each either undefined, or a String value with values "full", "long", "medium", or "short".
  • [[Pattern]] is a String value as described in 11.2.3.
  • [[RangePatterns]] is a Record as described in 11.2.3.

Finally, Intl.DateTimeFormat instances have a [[BoundFormat]] internal slot that caches the function returned by the format accessor (11.3.3).

11.5 Abstract Operations for DateTimeFormat Objects

Several DateTimeFormat algorithms use values from the following table, which provides internal slots, property names and allowable values for the components of date and time formats:

Table 7: Components of date and time formats
Internal Slot Property Values
[[Weekday]] "weekday" "narrow", "short", "long"
[[Era]] "era" "narrow", "short", "long"
[[Year]] "year" "2-digit", "numeric"
[[Month]] "month" "2-digit", "numeric", "narrow", "short", "long"
[[Day]] "day" "2-digit", "numeric"
[[DayPeriod]] "dayPeriod" "narrow", "short", "long"
[[Hour]] "hour" "2-digit", "numeric"
[[Minute]] "minute" "2-digit", "numeric"
[[Second]] "second" "2-digit", "numeric"
[[FractionalSecondDigits]] "fractionalSecondDigits" 1, 2, 3
[[TimeZoneName]] "timeZoneName" "short", "long", "shortOffset", "longOffset", "shortGeneric", "longGeneric"

11.5.1 DateTimeStyleFormat ( dateStyle, timeStyle, styles )

The abstract operation DateTimeStyleFormat takes arguments dateStyle ("full", "long", "medium", "short", or undefined), timeStyle ("full", "long", "medium", "short", or undefined), and styles (a Record) and returns a Record. styles is a record from %Intl.DateTimeFormat%.[[LocaleData]].[[<locale>]].[[styles]].[[<calendar>]] for some locale locale and calendar calendar. It returns the appropriate format record for date time formatting based on the parameters. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Assert: dateStyle is not undefined or timeStyle is not undefined.
  2. If timeStyle is not undefined, then
    1. Assert: timeStyle is one of "full", "long", "medium", or "short".
    2. Let timeFormat be styles.[[TimeFormat]].[[<timeStyle>]].
  3. If dateStyle is not undefined, then
    1. Assert: dateStyle is one of "full", "long", "medium", or "short".
    2. Let dateFormat be styles.[[DateFormat]].[[<dateStyle>]].
  4. If dateStyle is not undefined and timeStyle is not undefined, then
    1. Let format be a new Record.
    2. Add to format all fields from dateFormat except [[pattern]] and [[rangePatterns]].
    3. Add to format all fields from timeFormat except [[pattern]], [[rangePatterns]], [[pattern12]], and [[rangePatterns12]], if present.
    4. Let connector be styles.[[DateTimeFormat]].[[<dateStyle>]].
    5. Let pattern be the string connector with the substring "{0}" replaced with timeFormat.[[pattern]] and the substring "{1}" replaced with dateFormat.[[pattern]].
    6. Set format.[[pattern]] to pattern.
    7. If timeFormat has a [[pattern12]] field, then
      1. Let pattern12 be the string connector with the substring "{0}" replaced with timeFormat.[[pattern12]] and the substring "{1}" replaced with dateFormat.[[pattern]].
      2. Set format.[[pattern12]] to pattern12.
    8. Let dateTimeRangeFormat be styles.[[DateTimeRangeFormat]].[[<dateStyle>]].[[<timeStyle>]].
    9. Set format.[[rangePatterns]] to dateTimeRangeFormat.[[rangePatterns]].
    10. If dateTimeRangeFormat has a [[rangePatterns12]] field, then
      1. Set format.[[rangePatterns12]] to dateTimeRangeFormat.[[rangePatterns12]].
    11. Return format.
  5. If timeStyle is not undefined, then
    1. Return timeFormat.
  6. Assert: dateStyle is not undefined.
  7. Return dateFormat.

11.5.2 BasicFormatMatcher ( options, formats )

The abstract operation BasicFormatMatcher takes arguments options (a Record) and formats (a List of Records) and returns a Record. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let removalPenalty be 120.
  2. Let additionPenalty be 20.
  3. Let longLessPenalty be 8.
  4. Let longMorePenalty be 6.
  5. Let shortLessPenalty be 6.
  6. Let shortMorePenalty be 3.
  7. Let offsetPenalty be 1.
  8. Let bestScore be -∞.
  9. Let bestFormat be undefined.
  10. Assert: Type(formats) is List.
  11. For each element format of formats, do
    1. Let score be 0.
    2. For each row of Table 7, except the header row, in table order, do
      1. Let property be the name given in the Property column of the current row.
      2. If options has a field [[<property>]], let optionsProp be options.[[<property>]]; else let optionsProp be undefined.
      3. If format has a field [[<property>]], let formatProp be format.[[<property>]]; else let formatProp be undefined.
      4. If optionsProp is undefined and formatProp is not undefined, then
        1. Set score to score - additionPenalty.
      5. Else if optionsProp is not undefined and formatProp is undefined, then
        1. Set score to score - removalPenalty.
      6. Else if property is "timeZoneName", then
        1. If optionsProp is "short" or "shortGeneric", then
          1. If formatProp is "shortOffset", set score to score - offsetPenalty.
          2. Else if formatProp is "longOffset", set score to score - (offsetPenalty + shortMorePenalty).
          3. Else if optionsProp is "short" and formatProp is "long", set score to score - shortMorePenalty.
          4. Else if optionsProp is "shortGeneric" and formatProp is "longGeneric", set score to _score - shortMorePenalty.
          5. Else if optionsPropformatProp, set score to score - removalPenalty.
        2. Else if optionsProp is "shortOffset" and formatProp is "longOffset", then
          1. Set score to score - shortMorePenalty.
        3. Else if optionsProp is "long" or "longGeneric", then
          1. If formatProp is "longOffset", set score to score - offsetPenalty.
          2. Else if formatProp is "shortOffset", set score to score - (offsetPenalty + longLessPenalty).
          3. Else if optionsProp is "long" and formatProp is "short", set score to score - longLessPenalty.
          4. Else if optionsProp is "longGeneric" and formatProp is "shortGeneric", set score to score - longLessPenalty.
          5. Else if optionsPropformatProp, set score to score - removalPenalty.
        4. Else if optionsProp is "longOffset" and formatProp is "shortOffset", then
          1. Set score to score - longLessPenalty.
        5. Else if optionsPropformatProp, then
          1. Set score to score - removalPenalty.
      7. Else if optionsPropformatProp, then
        1. If property is "fractionalSecondDigits", then
          1. Let values be « 1, 2, 3 ».
        2. Else,
          1. Let values be « "2-digit", "numeric", "narrow", "short", "long" ».
        3. Let optionsPropIndex be the index of optionsProp within values.
        4. Let formatPropIndex be the index of formatProp within values.
        5. Let delta be max(min(formatPropIndex - optionsPropIndex, 2), -2).
        6. If delta = 2, set score to score - longMorePenalty.
        7. Else if delta = 1, set score to score - shortMorePenalty.
        8. Else if delta = -1, set score to score - shortLessPenalty.
        9. Else if delta = -2, set score to score - longLessPenalty.
    3. If score > bestScore, then
      1. Set bestScore to score.
      2. Set bestFormat to format.
  12. Return bestFormat.

11.5.3 BestFitFormatMatcher ( options, formats )

The implementation-defined abstract operation BestFitFormatMatcher takes arguments options (a Record) and formats (a List of Records) and returns a Record. It returns a set of component representations that a typical user of the selected locale would perceive as at least as good as the one returned by BasicFormatMatcher.

11.5.4 DateTime Format Functions

A DateTime format function is an anonymous built-in function that has a [[DateTimeFormat]] internal slot.

When a DateTime format function F is called with optional argument date, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let dtf be F.[[DateTimeFormat]].
  2. Assert: Type(dtf) is Object and dtf has an [[InitializedDateTimeFormat]] internal slot.
  3. If date is not provided or is undefined, then
    1. Let x be ! Call(%Date.now%, undefined).
  4. Else,
    1. Let x be ? ToNumber(date).
  5. Return ? FormatDateTime(dtf, x).

The "length" property of a DateTime format function is 1𝔽.

11.5.5 FormatDateTimePattern ( dateTimeFormat, patternParts, x, rangeFormatOptions )

The abstract operation FormatDateTimePattern takes arguments dateTimeFormat (an Intl.DateTimeFormat), patternParts (a List of Records as returned by PartitionPattern), x (a Number), and rangeFormatOptions (a range pattern Record as used in [[rangePattern]], or undefined) and returns either a normal completion containing a List of Records with fields [[Type]] (a String) and [[Value]] (a String), or a throw completion. It interprets x as a time value as specified in es2024, 21.4.1.1, and creates the corresponding parts according pattern and to the effective locale and the formatting options of dateTimeFormat and rangeFormatOptions. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let x be TimeClip(x).
  2. If x is NaN, throw a RangeError exception.
  3. Let locale be dateTimeFormat.[[Locale]].
  4. Let nfOptions be OrdinaryObjectCreate(null).
  5. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(nfOptions, "useGrouping", false).
  6. Let nf be ! Construct(%Intl.NumberFormat%, « locale, nfOptions »).
  7. Let nf2Options be OrdinaryObjectCreate(null).
  8. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(nf2Options, "minimumIntegerDigits", 2𝔽).
  9. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(nf2Options, "useGrouping", false).
  10. Let nf2 be ! Construct(%Intl.NumberFormat%, « locale, nf2Options »).
  11. Let fractionalSecondDigits be dateTimeFormat.[[FractionalSecondDigits]].
  12. If fractionalSecondDigits is not undefined, then
    1. Let nf3Options be OrdinaryObjectCreate(null).
    2. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(nf3Options, "minimumIntegerDigits", 𝔽(fractionalSecondDigits)).
    3. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(nf3Options, "useGrouping", false).
    4. Let nf3 be ! Construct(%Intl.NumberFormat%, « locale, nf3Options »).
  13. Let tm be ToLocalTime(((x) × 106), dateTimeFormat.[[Calendar]], dateTimeFormat.[[TimeZone]]).
  14. Let result be a new empty List.
  15. For each Record { [[Type]], [[Value]] } patternPart of patternParts, do
    1. Let p be patternPart.[[Type]].
    2. If p is "literal", then
      1. Append the Record { [[Type]]: "literal", [[Value]]: patternPart.[[Value]] } to result.
    3. Else if p is equal to "fractionalSecondDigits", then
      1. Assert: fractionalSecondDigits is not undefined.
      2. Let v be tm.[[Millisecond]].
      3. Set v to floor(v × 10( fractionalSecondDigits - 3 )).
      4. Let fv be FormatNumeric(nf3, v).
      5. Append the Record { [[Type]]: "fractionalSecond", [[Value]]: fv } to result.
    4. Else if p is equal to "dayPeriod", then
      1. Let f be dateTimeFormat.[[DayPeriod]].
      2. Let fv be a String value representing the day period of tm in the form given by f; the String value depends upon the implementation and the effective locale of dateTimeFormat.
      3. Append the Record { [[Type]]: p, [[Value]]: fv } to result.
    5. Else if p is equal to "timeZoneName", then
      1. Let f be dateTimeFormat.[[TimeZoneName]].
      2. Let v be dateTimeFormat.[[TimeZone]].
      3. Let fv be a String value representing v in the form given by f; the String value depends upon the implementation and the effective locale of dateTimeFormat. The String value may also depend on the value of the [[InDST]] field of tm if f is "short", "long", "shortOffset", or "longOffset". If the implementation does not have such a localized representation of v, then use the String value of v itself.
      4. Append the Record { [[Type]]: p, [[Value]]: fv } to result.
    6. Else if p matches one of the values in the Property column of Table 7, then
      1. If rangeFormatOptions is not undefined, let f be the value of rangeFormatOptions's field whose name matches p.
      2. Else, let f be the value of dateTimeFormat's internal slot whose name matches the value in the Internal Slot column of the matching row.
      3. Let v be the value of tm's field whose name is the Internal Slot column of the matching row.
      4. If p is "year" and v ≤ 0, set v to 1 - v.
      5. If p is "month", set v to v + 1.
      6. If p is "hour" and dateTimeFormat.[[HourCycle]] is "h11" or "h12", then
        1. Set v to v modulo 12.
        2. If v is 0 and dateTimeFormat.[[HourCycle]] is "h12", set v to 12.
      7. If p is "hour" and dateTimeFormat.[[HourCycle]] is "h24", then
        1. If v is 0, set v to 24.
      8. If f is "numeric", then
        1. Let fv be FormatNumeric(nf, v).
      9. Else if f is "2-digit", then
        1. Let fv be FormatNumeric(nf2, v).
        2. If the "length" property of fv is greater than 2, set fv to the substring of fv containing the last two characters.
      10. Else if f is "narrow", "short", or "long", then
        1. Let fv be a String value representing v in the form given by f; the String value depends upon the implementation and the effective locale and calendar of dateTimeFormat. If p is "month" and rangeFormatOptions is undefined, then the String value may also depend on whether dateTimeFormat.[[Day]] is undefined. If p is "month" and rangeFormatOptions is not undefined, then the String value may also depend on whether rangeFormatOptions.[[day]] is undefined. If p is "era" and rangeFormatOptions is undefined, then the String value may also depend on whether dateTimeFormat.[[Era]] is undefined. If p is "era" and rangeFormatOptions is not undefined, then the String value may also depend on whether rangeFormatOptions.[[era]] is undefined. If the implementation does not have such a localized representation of v, then use ! ToString(v).
      11. Append the Record { [[Type]]: p, [[Value]]: fv } to result.
    7. Else if p is equal to "ampm", then
      1. Let v be tm.[[Hour]].
      2. If v is greater than 11, then
        1. Let fv be an implementation and locale dependent String value representing "post meridiem".
      3. Else,
        1. Let fv be an implementation and locale dependent String value representing "ante meridiem".
      4. Append the Record { [[Type]]: "dayPeriod", [[Value]]: fv } to result.
    8. Else if p is equal to "relatedYear", then
      1. Let v be tm.[[RelatedYear]].
      2. Let fv be FormatNumeric(nf, v).
      3. Append the Record { [[Type]]: "relatedYear", [[Value]]: fv } to result.
    9. Else if p is equal to "yearName", then
      1. Let v be tm.[[YearName]].
      2. Let fv be an implementation and locale dependent String value representing v.
      3. Append the Record { [[Type]]: "yearName", [[Value]]: fv } to result.
    10. Else,
      1. Let unknown be an implementation-, locale-, and numbering system-dependent String based on x and p.
      2. Append the Record { [[Type]]: "unknown", [[Value]]: unknown } to result.
  16. Return result.
Note
It is recommended that implementations use the locale and calendar dependent strings provided by the Common Locale Data Repository (available at https://cldr.unicode.org/), and use CLDR "abbreviated" strings for DateTimeFormat "short" strings, and CLDR "wide" strings for DateTimeFormat "long" strings.

11.5.6 PartitionDateTimePattern ( dateTimeFormat, x )

The abstract operation PartitionDateTimePattern takes arguments dateTimeFormat (an Intl.DateTimeFormat) and x (a Number) and returns either a normal completion containing a List of Records with fields [[Type]] (a String) and [[Value]] (a String), or a throw completion. It interprets x as a time value as specified in es2024, 21.4.1.1, and creates the corresponding parts according to the effective locale and the formatting options of dateTimeFormat. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let patternParts be PartitionPattern(dateTimeFormat.[[Pattern]]).
  2. Let result be ? FormatDateTimePattern(dateTimeFormat, patternParts, x, undefined).
  3. Return result.

11.5.7 FormatDateTime ( dateTimeFormat, x )

The abstract operation FormatDateTime takes arguments dateTimeFormat (an Intl.DateTimeFormat) and x (a Number) and returns either a normal completion containing a String or a throw completion. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let parts be ? PartitionDateTimePattern(dateTimeFormat, x).
  2. Let result be the empty String.
  3. For each Record { [[Type]], [[Value]] } part of parts, do
    1. Set result to the string-concatenation of result and part.[[Value]].
  4. Return result.

11.5.8 FormatDateTimeToParts ( dateTimeFormat, x )

The abstract operation FormatDateTimeToParts takes arguments dateTimeFormat (an Intl.DateTimeFormat) and x (a Number) and returns either a normal completion containing an Array or a throw completion. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let parts be ? PartitionDateTimePattern(dateTimeFormat, x).
  2. Let result be ! ArrayCreate(0).
  3. Let n be 0.
  4. For each Record { [[Type]], [[Value]] } part of parts, do
    1. Let O be OrdinaryObjectCreate(%Object.prototype%).
    2. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(O, "type", part.[[Type]]).
    3. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(O, "value", part.[[Value]]).
    4. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(result, ! ToString(𝔽(n)), O).
    5. Increment n by 1.
  5. Return result.

11.5.9 PartitionDateTimeRangePattern ( dateTimeFormat, x, y )

The abstract operation PartitionDateTimeRangePattern takes arguments dateTimeFormat (an Intl.DateTimeFormat), x (a Number), and y (a Number) and returns either a normal completion containing a List of Records with fields [[Type]] (a String), [[Value]] (a String), and [[Source]] (a String), or a throw completion. It interprets x and y as time values as specified in es2024, 21.4.1.1, and creates the corresponding parts according to the effective locale and the formatting options of dateTimeFormat. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Set x to TimeClip(x).
  2. If x is NaN, throw a RangeError exception.
  3. Set y to TimeClip(y).
  4. If y is NaN, throw a RangeError exception.
  5. Let tm1 be ToLocalTime(((x) × 106), dateTimeFormat.[[Calendar]], dateTimeFormat.[[TimeZone]]).
  6. Let tm2 be ToLocalTime(((y) × 106), dateTimeFormat.[[Calendar]], dateTimeFormat.[[TimeZone]]).
  7. Let rangePatterns be dateTimeFormat.[[RangePatterns]].
  8. Let selectedRangePattern be undefined.
  9. Let relevantFieldsEqual be true.
  10. Let checkMoreFields be true.
  11. For each row of Table 5, except the header row, in table order, do
    1. Let fieldName be the name given in the Range Pattern Field column of the current row.
    2. If rangePatterns has a field [[<fieldName>]], let rangePattern be rangePatterns.[[<fieldName>]]; else let rangePattern be undefined.
    3. If selectedRangePattern is not undefined and rangePattern is undefined, then
      1. NOTE: Because there is no range pattern for differences at or below this field, no further checks will be performed.
      2. Set checkMoreFields to false.
    4. If relevantFieldsEqual is true and checkMoreFields is true, then
      1. Set selectedRangePattern to rangePattern.
      2. If fieldName is equal to [[AmPm]], then
        1. If tm1.[[Hour]] is less than 12, let v1 be "am"; else let v1 be "pm".
        2. If tm2.[[Hour]] is less than 12, let v2 be "am"; else let v2 be "pm".
      3. Else if fieldName is equal to [[DayPeriod]], then
        1. Let v1 be a String value representing the day period of tm1; the String value depends upon the implementation and the effective locale of dateTimeFormat.
        2. Let v2 be a String value representing the day period of tm2; the String value depends upon the implementation and the effective locale of dateTimeFormat.
      4. Else if fieldName is equal to [[FractionalSecondDigits]], then
        1. Let fractionalSecondDigits be dateTimeFormat.[[FractionalSecondDigits]].
        2. If fractionalSecondDigits is undefined, then
          1. Set fractionalSecondDigits to 3.
        3. Let exp be fractionalSecondDigits - 3.
        4. Let v1 be floor(tm1.[[Millisecond]] × 10exp).
        5. Let v2 be floor(tm2.[[Millisecond]] × 10exp).
      5. Else,
        1. Let v1 be tm1.[[<fieldName>]].
        2. Let v2 be tm2.[[<fieldName>]].
      6. If v1 is not equal to v2, then
        1. Set relevantFieldsEqual to false.
  12. If relevantFieldsEqual is true, then
    1. Let collapsedResult be a new empty List.
    2. Let pattern be dateTimeFormat.[[Pattern]].
    3. Let patternParts be PartitionPattern(pattern).
    4. Let resultParts be ! FormatDateTimePattern(dateTimeFormat, patternParts, x, undefined).
    5. For each Record { [[Type]], [[Value]] } r of resultParts, do
      1. Append the Record { [[Type]]: r.[[Type]], [[Value]]: r.[[Value]], [[Source]]: "shared" } to collapsedResult.
    6. Return collapsedResult.
  13. Let rangeResult be a new empty List.
  14. If selectedRangePattern is undefined, then
    1. Set selectedRangePattern to rangePatterns.[[Default]].
  15. For each Record { [[Pattern]], [[Source]] } rangePatternPart of selectedRangePattern.[[PatternParts]], do
    1. Let pattern be rangePatternPart.[[Pattern]].
    2. Let source be rangePatternPart.[[Source]].
    3. If source is "startRange" or "shared", then
      1. Let z be x.
    4. Else,
      1. Let z be y.
    5. Let patternParts be PartitionPattern(pattern).
    6. Let resultParts be ! FormatDateTimePattern(dateTimeFormat, patternParts, z, selectedRangePattern).
    7. For each Record { [[Type]], [[Value]] } r of resultParts, do
      1. Append the Record { [[Type]]: r.[[Type]], [[Value]]: r.[[Value]], [[Source]]: source } to rangeResult.
  16. Return rangeResult.

11.5.10 FormatDateTimeRange ( dateTimeFormat, x, y )

The abstract operation FormatDateTimeRange takes arguments dateTimeFormat (an Intl.DateTimeFormat), x (a Number), and y (a Number) and returns either a normal completion containing a String or a throw completion. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let parts be ? PartitionDateTimeRangePattern(dateTimeFormat, x, y).
  2. Let result be the empty String.
  3. For each Record { [[Type]], [[Value]], [[Source]] } part of parts, do
    1. Set result to the string-concatenation of result and part.[[Value]].
  4. Return result.

11.5.11 FormatDateTimeRangeToParts ( dateTimeFormat, x, y )

The abstract operation FormatDateTimeRangeToParts takes arguments dateTimeFormat (an Intl.DateTimeFormat), x (a Number), and y (a Number) and returns either a normal completion containing an Array or a throw completion. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let parts be ? PartitionDateTimeRangePattern(dateTimeFormat, x, y).
  2. Let result be ! ArrayCreate(0).
  3. Let n be 0.
  4. For each Record { [[Type]], [[Value]], [[Source]] } part of parts, do
    1. Let O be OrdinaryObjectCreate(%Object.prototype%).
    2. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(O, "type", part.[[Type]]).
    3. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(O, "value", part.[[Value]]).
    4. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(O, "source", part.[[Source]]).
    5. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(result, ! ToString(𝔽(n)), O).
    6. Increment n by 1.
  5. Return result.

11.5.12 ToLocalTime ( epochNs, calendar, timeZoneIdentifier )

The implementation-defined abstract operation ToLocalTime takes arguments epochNs (a BigInt), calendar (a String), and timeZoneIdentifier (a String) and returns a ToLocalTime Record. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If IsTimeZoneOffsetString(timeZoneIdentifier) is true, then
    1. Let offsetNs be ParseTimeZoneOffsetString(timeZoneIdentifier).
  2. Else,
    1. Assert: IsValidTimeZoneName(timeZoneIdentifier) is true.
    2. Let offsetNs be GetNamedTimeZoneOffsetNanoseconds(timeZoneIdentifier, epochNs).
  3. Let tz be (epochNs) + offsetNs.
  4. If calendar is "gregory", then
    1. Return a ToLocalTime Record with fields calculated from tz according to Table 8.
  5. Else,
    1. Return a ToLocalTime Record with the fields calculated from tz for the given calendar. The calculations should use best available information about the specified calendar.
Note
A conforming implementation must recognize "UTC" and all Zone and Link names from the IANA Time Zone Database (and only such names), and use best available current and historical information about their offsets from UTC and their daylight saving time rules in calculations.

11.5.13 ToLocalTime Records

Each ToLocalTime Record has the fields defined in Table 8.

Table 8: Record returned by ToLocalTime
Field Name Value Type Value Calculation for Gregorian Calendar
[[Weekday]] an integer (WeekDay(𝔽(floor(tz / 106))))
[[Era]] a String Let year be YearFromTime(𝔽(floor(tz / 106))). If year < 1𝔽, return "BC", else return "AD".
[[Year]] an integer (YearFromTime(𝔽(floor(tz / 106))))
[[RelatedYear]] an integer or undefined undefined
[[YearName]] a String or undefined undefined
[[Month]] an integer (MonthFromTime(𝔽(floor(tz / 106))))
[[Day]] an integer (DateFromTime(𝔽(floor(tz / 106))))
[[Hour]] an integer (HourFromTime(𝔽(floor(tz / 106))))
[[Minute]] an integer (MinFromTime(𝔽(floor(tz / 106))))
[[Second]] an integer (SecFromTime(𝔽(floor(tz / 106))))
[[Millisecond]] an integer (msFromTime(𝔽(floor(tz / 106))))
[[InDST]] a Boolean Calculate true or false using the best available information about the specified calendar and timeZoneIdentifier, including current and historical information from the IANA Time Zone Database about time zone offsets from UTC and daylight saving time rules.

11.5.14 UnwrapDateTimeFormat ( dtf )

The abstract operation UnwrapDateTimeFormat takes argument dtf (an ECMAScript language value) and returns either a normal completion containing an ECMAScript language value or a throw completion. It returns the DateTimeFormat instance of its input object, which is either the value itself or a value associated with it by %Intl.DateTimeFormat% according to the normative optional constructor mode of 4.3 Note 1. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If Type(dtf) is not Object, throw a TypeError exception.
  2. If dtf does not have an [[InitializedDateTimeFormat]] internal slot and ? OrdinaryHasInstance(%Intl.DateTimeFormat%, dtf) is true, then
    1. Return ? Get(dtf, %Intl%.[[FallbackSymbol]]).
  3. Return dtf.

12 DisplayNames Objects

12.1 The Intl.DisplayNames Constructor

The DisplayNames constructor is the %Intl.DisplayNames% intrinsic object and a standard built-in property of the Intl object. Behaviour common to all service constructor properties of the Intl object is specified in 9.1.

12.1.1 Intl.DisplayNames ( locales, options )

When the Intl.DisplayNames function is called with arguments locales and options, the following steps are taken:

  1. If NewTarget is undefined, throw a TypeError exception.
  2. Let displayNames be ? OrdinaryCreateFromConstructor(NewTarget, "%Intl.DisplayNames.prototype%", « [[InitializedDisplayNames]], [[Locale]], [[Style]], [[Type]], [[Fallback]], [[LanguageDisplay]], [[Fields]] »).
  3. Let requestedLocales be ? CanonicalizeLocaleList(locales).
  4. If options is undefined, throw a TypeError exception.
  5. Set options to ? GetOptionsObject(options).
  6. Let opt be a new Record.
  7. Let matcher be ? GetOption(options, "localeMatcher", string, « "lookup", "best fit" », "best fit").
  8. Set opt.[[localeMatcher]] to matcher.
  9. Let r be ResolveLocale(%Intl.DisplayNames%.[[AvailableLocales]], requestedLocales, opt, %Intl.DisplayNames%.[[RelevantExtensionKeys]], %Intl.DisplayNames%.[[LocaleData]]).
  10. Let style be ? GetOption(options, "style", string, « "narrow", "short", "long" », "long").
  11. Set displayNames.[[Style]] to style.
  12. Let type be ? GetOption(options, "type", string, « "language", "region", "script", "currency", "calendar", "dateTimeField" », undefined).
  13. If type is undefined, throw a TypeError exception.
  14. Set displayNames.[[Type]] to type.
  15. Let fallback be ? GetOption(options, "fallback", string, « "code", "none" », "code").
  16. Set displayNames.[[Fallback]] to fallback.
  17. Set displayNames.[[Locale]] to r.[[Locale]].
  18. Let resolvedLocaleData be r.[[LocaleData]].
  19. Let types be resolvedLocaleData.[[types]].
  20. Assert: types is a Record (see 12.2.3).
  21. Let languageDisplay be ? GetOption(options, "languageDisplay", string, « "dialect", "standard" », "dialect").
  22. Let typeFields be types.[[<type>]].
  23. Assert: typeFields is a Record (see 12.2.3).
  24. If type is "language", then
    1. Set displayNames.[[LanguageDisplay]] to languageDisplay.
    2. Set typeFields to typeFields.[[<languageDisplay>]].
    3. Assert: typeFields is a Record (see 12.2.3).
  25. Let styleFields be typeFields.[[<style>]].
  26. Assert: styleFields is a Record (see 12.2.3).
  27. Set displayNames.[[Fields]] to styleFields.
  28. Return displayNames.

12.2 Properties of the Intl.DisplayNames Constructor

The Intl.DisplayNames constructor has the following properties:

12.2.1 Intl.DisplayNames.prototype

The value of Intl.DisplayNames.prototype is %Intl.DisplayNames.prototype%.

This property has the attributes { [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: false }.

12.2.2 Intl.DisplayNames.supportedLocalesOf ( locales [ , options ] )

When the supportedLocalesOf method is called with arguments locales and options, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let availableLocales be %Intl.DisplayNames%.[[AvailableLocales]].
  2. Let requestedLocales be ? CanonicalizeLocaleList(locales).
  3. Return ? SupportedLocales(availableLocales, requestedLocales, options).

12.2.3 Internal slots

The value of the [[AvailableLocales]] internal slot is implementation-defined within the constraints described in 9.1.

The value of the [[RelevantExtensionKeys]] internal slot is « ».

The value of the [[LocaleData]] internal slot is implementation-defined within the constraints described in 9.1 and the following additional constraints:

  • [[LocaleData]].[[<locale>]] must have a [[types]] field for all locale values locale. The value of this field must be a Record, which must have fields with the names of all display name types: "language", "region", "script", "currency", "calendar", and "dateTimeField".
  • The value of the field "language" must be a Record which must have fields with the names of one of the valid language displays: "dialect" and "standard".
  • The language display fields under display name type "language" should contain Records which must have fields with the names of one of the valid display name styles: "narrow", "short", and "long".
  • The value of the fields "region", "script", "currency", "calendar", and "dateTimeField" must be Records, which must have fields with the names of all display name styles: "narrow", "short", and "long".
  • The display name style fields under display name type "language" should contain Records with keys corresponding to language codes that can be matched by the unicode_language_id Unicode locale nonterminal. The value of these fields must be string values.
  • The display name style fields under display name type "region" should contain Records with keys corresponding to region codes. The value of these fields must be string values.
  • The display name style fields under display name type "script" should contain Records with keys corresponding to script codes. The value of these fields must be string values.
  • The display name style fields under display name type "currency" should contain Records with keys corresponding to currency codes. The value of these fields must be string values.
  • The display name style fields under display name type "calendar" should contain Records with keys corresponding to calendar identifiers that can be matched by the type Unicode locale nonterminal. The value of these fields must be string values.
  • The display name style fields under display name type "dateTimeField" should contain Records with keys corresponding to codes listed in Table 10. The value of these fields must be string values.
Note
It is recommended that implementations use the locale data provided by the Common Locale Data Repository (available at https://cldr.unicode.org/).

12.3 Properties of the Intl.DisplayNames Prototype Object

The Intl.DisplayNames prototype object is itself an ordinary object. %Intl.DisplayNames.prototype% is not an Intl.DisplayNames instance and does not have an [[InitializedDisplayNames]] internal slot or any of the other internal slots of Intl.DisplayNames instance objects.

12.3.1 Intl.DisplayNames.prototype.constructor

The initial value of Intl.DisplayNames.prototype.constructor is %Intl.DisplayNames%.

12.3.2 Intl.DisplayNames.prototype[ @@toStringTag ]

The initial value of the @@toStringTag property is the String value "Intl.DisplayNames".

This property has the attributes { [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: true }.

12.3.3 Intl.DisplayNames.prototype.of ( code )

When the Intl.DisplayNames.prototype.of is called with an argument code, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let displayNames be this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(displayNames, [[InitializedDisplayNames]]).
  3. Let code be ? ToString(code).
  4. Set code to ? CanonicalCodeForDisplayNames(displayNames.[[Type]], code).
  5. Let fields be displayNames.[[Fields]].
  6. If fields has a field [[<code>]], return fields.[[<code>]].
  7. If displayNames.[[Fallback]] is "code", return code.
  8. Return undefined.

12.3.4 Intl.DisplayNames.prototype.resolvedOptions ( )

This function provides access to the locale and options computed during initialization of the object.

  1. Let displayNames be this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(displayNames, [[InitializedDisplayNames]]).
  3. Let options be OrdinaryObjectCreate(%Object.prototype%).
  4. For each row of Table 9, except the header row, in table order, do
    1. Let p be the Property value of the current row.
    2. Let v be the value of displayNames's internal slot whose name is the Internal Slot value of the current row.
    3. Assert: v is not undefined.
    4. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(options, p, v).
  5. Return options.
Table 9: Resolved Options of DisplayNames Instances
Internal Slot Property
[[Locale]] "locale"
[[Style]] "style"
[[Type]] "type"
[[Fallback]] "fallback"
[[LanguageDisplay]] "languageDisplay"

12.4 Properties of Intl.DisplayNames Instances

Intl.DisplayNames instances are ordinary objects that inherit properties from %Intl.DisplayNames.prototype%.

Intl.DisplayNames instances have an [[InitializedDisplayNames]] internal slot.

Intl.DisplayNames instances also have several internal slots that are computed by the constructor:

  • [[Locale]] is a String value with the language tag of the locale whose localization is used for formatting.
  • [[Style]] is one of the String values "narrow", "short", or "long", identifying the display name style used.
  • [[Type]] is one of the String values "language", "region", "script", "currency", "calendar", or "dateTimeField", identifying the type of the display names requested.
  • [[Fallback]] is one of the String values "code" or "none", identifying the fallback return when the system does not have the requested display name.
  • [[LanguageDisplay]] is one of the String values "dialect" or "standard", identifying the language display kind. It is only used when [[Type]] has the value "language".
  • [[Fields]] is a Record (see 12.2.3) which must have fields with keys corresponding to codes according to [[Style]], [[Type]], and [[LanguageDisplay]].

12.5 Abstract Operations for DisplayNames Objects

12.5.1 CanonicalCodeForDisplayNames ( type, code )

The abstract operation CanonicalCodeForDisplayNames takes arguments type (a String) and code (a String) and returns either a normal completion containing a String or a throw completion. It verifies that code represents a well-formed code according to type and returns the case-regularized form of code. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If type is "language", then
    1. If code cannot be matched by the unicode_language_id Unicode locale nonterminal, throw a RangeError exception.
    2. If IsStructurallyValidLanguageTag(code) is false, throw a RangeError exception.
    3. Return CanonicalizeUnicodeLocaleId(code).
  2. If type is "region", then
    1. If code cannot be matched by the unicode_region_subtag Unicode locale nonterminal, throw a RangeError exception.
    2. Return the ASCII-uppercase of code.
  3. If type is "script", then
    1. If code cannot be matched by the unicode_script_subtag Unicode locale nonterminal, throw a RangeError exception.
    2. Assert: The length of code is 4, and every code unit of code represents an ASCII letter (0x0041 through 0x005A and 0x0061 through 0x007A, both inclusive).
    3. Let first be the ASCII-uppercase of the substring of code from 0 to 1.
    4. Let rest be the ASCII-lowercase of the substring of code from 1.
    5. Return the string-concatenation of first and rest.
  4. If type is "calendar", then
    1. If code cannot be matched by the type Unicode locale nonterminal, throw a RangeError exception.
    2. If code uses any of the backwards compatibility syntax described in Unicode Technical Standard #35 Part 1 Core, Section 3.3 BCP 47 Conformance, throw a RangeError exception.
    3. Return the ASCII-lowercase of code.
  5. If type is "dateTimeField", then
    1. If the result of IsValidDateTimeFieldCode(code) is false, throw a RangeError exception.
    2. Return code.
  6. Assert: type is "currency".
  7. If IsWellFormedCurrencyCode(code) is false, throw a RangeError exception.
  8. Return the ASCII-uppercase of code.

12.5.2 IsValidDateTimeFieldCode ( field )

The abstract operation IsValidDateTimeFieldCode takes argument field (a String) and returns a Boolean. It verifies that the field argument represents a valid date time field code. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If field is listed in the Code column of Table 10, return true.
  2. Return false.
Table 10: Codes For Date Time Field of DisplayNames
Code Description
"era" The field indicating the era, e.g. AD or BC in the Gregorian or Julian calendar.
"year" The field indicating the year (within an era).
"quarter" The field indicating the quarter, e.g. Q2, 2nd quarter, etc.
"month" The field indicating the month, e.g. Sep, September, etc.
"weekOfYear" The field indicating the week number within a year.
"weekday" The field indicating the day of week, e.g. Tue, Tuesday, etc.
"day" The field indicating the day in month.
"dayPeriod" The field indicating the day period, either am, pm, etc. or noon, evening, etc..
"hour" The field indicating the hour.
"minute" The field indicating the minute.
"second" The field indicating the second.
"timeZoneName" The field indicating the time zone name, e.g. PDT, Pacific Daylight Time, etc.

13 ListFormat Objects

13.1 The Intl.ListFormat Constructor

The ListFormat constructor is the %Intl.ListFormat% intrinsic object and a standard built-in property of the Intl object. Behaviour common to all service constructor properties of the Intl object is specified in 9.1.

13.1.1 Intl.ListFormat ( [ locales [ , options ] ] )

When the Intl.ListFormat function is called with optional arguments locales and options, the following steps are taken:

  1. If NewTarget is undefined, throw a TypeError exception.
  2. Let listFormat be ? OrdinaryCreateFromConstructor(NewTarget, "%Intl.ListFormat.prototype%", « [[InitializedListFormat]], [[Locale]], [[Type]], [[Style]], [[Templates]] »).
  3. Let requestedLocales be ? CanonicalizeLocaleList(locales).
  4. Set options to ? GetOptionsObject(options).
  5. Let opt be a new Record.
  6. Let matcher be ? GetOption(options, "localeMatcher", string, « "lookup", "best fit" », "best fit").
  7. Set opt.[[localeMatcher]] to matcher.
  8. Let r be ResolveLocale(%Intl.ListFormat%.[[AvailableLocales]], requestedLocales, opt, %Intl.ListFormat%.[[RelevantExtensionKeys]], %Intl.ListFormat%.[[LocaleData]]).
  9. Set listFormat.[[Locale]] to r.[[Locale]].
  10. Let type be ? GetOption(options, "type", string, « "conjunction", "disjunction", "unit" », "conjunction").
  11. Set listFormat.[[Type]] to type.
  12. Let style be ? GetOption(options, "style", string, « "long", "short", "narrow" », "long").
  13. Set listFormat.[[Style]] to style.
  14. Let resolvedLocaleData be r.[[LocaleData]].
  15. Let dataLocaleTypes be resolvedLocaleData.[[<type>]].
  16. Set listFormat.[[Templates]] to dataLocaleTypes.[[<style>]].
  17. Return listFormat.

13.2 Properties of the Intl.ListFormat Constructor

The Intl.ListFormat constructor has the following properties:

13.2.1 Intl.ListFormat.prototype

The value of Intl.ListFormat.prototype is %Intl.ListFormat.prototype%.

This property has the attributes { [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: false }.

13.2.2 Intl.ListFormat.supportedLocalesOf ( locales [ , options ] )

When the supportedLocalesOf method is called with arguments locales and options, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let availableLocales be %Intl.ListFormat%.[[AvailableLocales]].
  2. Let requestedLocales be ? CanonicalizeLocaleList(locales).
  3. Return ? SupportedLocales(availableLocales, requestedLocales, options).

13.2.3 Internal slots

The value of the [[AvailableLocales]] internal slot is implementation-defined within the constraints described in 9.1.

The value of the [[RelevantExtensionKeys]] internal slot is « ».

Note 1
Intl.ListFormat does not have any relevant extension keys.

The value of the [[LocaleData]] internal slot is implementation-defined within the constraints described in 9.1 and the following additional constraints, for each locale value locale in %Intl.ListFormat%.[[AvailableLocales]]:

  • [[LocaleData]].[[<locale>]] is a Record which has three fields [[conjunction]], [[disjunction]], and [[unit]]. Each of these is a Record which must have fields with the names of three formatting styles: [[long]], [[short]], and [[narrow]].
  • Each of those fields is considered a ListFormat template set, which must be a List of Records with fields named: [[Pair]], [[Start]], [[Middle]], and [[End]]. Each of those fields must be a template string as specified in LDML List Format Rules. Each template string must contain the substrings "{0}" and "{1}" exactly once. The substring "{0}" should occur before the substring "{1}".
Note 2
It is recommended that implementations use the locale data provided by the Common Locale Data Repository (available at https://cldr.unicode.org/). In LDML's listPattern, conjunction corresponds to "standard", disjunction corresponds to "or", and unit corresponds to "unit".
Note 3
Among the list types, conjunction stands for "and"-based lists (e.g., "A, B, and C"), disjunction stands for "or"-based lists (e.g., "A, B, or C"), and unit stands for lists of values with units (e.g., "5 pounds, 12 ounces").

13.3 Properties of the Intl.ListFormat Prototype Object

The Intl.ListFormat prototype object is itself an ordinary object. %Intl.ListFormat.prototype% is not an Intl.ListFormat instance and does not have an [[InitializedListFormat]] internal slot or any of the other internal slots of Intl.ListFormat instance objects.

13.3.1 Intl.ListFormat.prototype.constructor

The initial value of Intl.ListFormat.prototype.constructor is %Intl.ListFormat%.

13.3.2 Intl.ListFormat.prototype [ @@toStringTag ]

The initial value of the @@toStringTag property is the String value "Intl.ListFormat".

This property has the attributes { [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: true }.

13.3.3 Intl.ListFormat.prototype.format ( list )

When the format method is called with an argument list, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let lf be the this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(lf, [[InitializedListFormat]]).
  3. Let stringList be ? StringListFromIterable(list).
  4. Return FormatList(lf, stringList).

13.3.4 Intl.ListFormat.prototype.formatToParts ( list )

When the formatToParts method is called with an argument list, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let lf be the this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(lf, [[InitializedListFormat]]).
  3. Let stringList be ? StringListFromIterable(list).
  4. Return FormatListToParts(lf, stringList).

13.3.5 Intl.ListFormat.prototype.resolvedOptions ( )

This function provides access to the locale and options computed during initialization of the object.

  1. Let lf be the this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(lf, [[InitializedListFormat]]).
  3. Let options be OrdinaryObjectCreate(%Object.prototype%).
  4. For each row of Table 11, except the header row, in table order, do
    1. Let p be the Property value of the current row.
    2. Let v be the value of lf's internal slot whose name is the Internal Slot value of the current row.
    3. Assert: v is not undefined.
    4. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(options, p, v).
  5. Return options.
Table 11: Resolved Options of ListFormat Instances
Internal Slot Property
[[Locale]] "locale"
[[Type]] "type"
[[Style]] "style"

13.4 Properties of Intl.ListFormat Instances

Intl.ListFormat instances inherit properties from %Intl.ListFormat.prototype%.

Intl.ListFormat instances have an [[InitializedListFormat]] internal slot.

Intl.ListFormat instances also have several internal slots that are computed by the constructor:

  • [[Locale]] is a String value with the language tag of the locale whose localization is used by the list format styles.
  • [[Type]] is one of the String values "conjunction", "disjunction", or "unit", identifying the list of types used.
  • [[Style]] is one of the String values "long", "short", or "narrow", identifying the list formatting style used.
  • [[Templates]] is a ListFormat template set.

13.5 Abstract Operations for ListFormat Objects

13.5.1 DeconstructPattern ( pattern, placeables )

The abstract operation DeconstructPattern takes arguments pattern (a String) and placeables (a Record) and returns a List. It deconstructs the pattern string into a list of parts.

placeables is a Record whose keys are placeables tokens used in the pattern string, and values are parts records (as from PartitionPattern) which will be used in the result List to represent the token part. Example:

Input:
  DeconstructPattern("AA{xx}BB{yy}CC", {
    [[xx]]: {[[Type]]: "hour", [[Value]]: "15"},
    [[yy]]: {[[Type]]: "minute", [[Value]]: "06"}
  })

Output (List of parts records):
  «
    {[[Type]]: "literal", [[Value]]: "AA"},
    {[[Type]]: "hour", [[Value]]: "15"},
    {[[Type]]: "literal", [[Value]]: "BB"},
    {[[Type]]: "minute", [[Value]]: "06"},
    {[[Type]]: "literal", [[Value]]: "CC"}
  »
          
It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let patternParts be PartitionPattern(pattern).
  2. Let result be a new empty List.
  3. For each Record { [[Type]], [[Value]] } patternPart of patternParts, do
    1. Let part be patternPart.[[Type]].
    2. If part is "literal", then
      1. Append the Record { [[Type]]: "literal", [[Value]]: patternPart.[[Value]] } to result.
    3. Else,
      1. Assert: placeables has a field [[<part>]].
      2. Let subst be placeables.[[<part>]].
      3. If Type(subst) is List, then
        1. For each element s of subst, do
          1. Append s to result.
      4. Else,
        1. Append subst to result.
  4. Return result.

13.5.2 CreatePartsFromList ( listFormat, list )

The abstract operation CreatePartsFromList takes arguments listFormat (an Intl.ListFormat) and list (a List of Strings) and returns a List of Records with fields [[Type]] ("element" or "literal") and [[Value]] (a String). It creates the corresponding list of parts according to the effective locale and the formatting options of listFormat. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let size be the number of elements of list.
  2. If size is 0, then
    1. Return a new empty List.
  3. If size is 2, then
    1. Let n be an index into listFormat.[[Templates]] based on listFormat.[[Locale]], list[0], and list[1].
    2. Let pattern be listFormat.[[Templates]][n].[[Pair]].
    3. Let first be a new Record { [[Type]]: "element", [[Value]]: list[0] }.
    4. Let second be a new Record { [[Type]]: "element", [[Value]]: list[1] }.
    5. Let placeables be a new Record { [[0]]: first, [[1]]: second }.
    6. Return DeconstructPattern(pattern, placeables).
  4. Let last be a new Record { [[Type]]: "element", [[Value]]: list[size - 1] }.
  5. Let parts be « last ».
  6. Let i be size - 2.
  7. Repeat, while i ≥ 0,
    1. Let head be a new Record { [[Type]]: "element", [[Value]]: list[i] }.
    2. Let n be an implementation-defined index into listFormat.[[Templates]] based on listFormat.[[Locale]], head, and parts.
    3. If i is 0, then
      1. Let pattern be listFormat.[[Templates]][n].[[Start]].
    4. Else if i is less than size - 2, then
      1. Let pattern be listFormat.[[Templates]][n].[[Middle]].
    5. Else,
      1. Let pattern be listFormat.[[Templates]][n].[[End]].
    6. Let placeables be a new Record { [[0]]: head, [[1]]: parts }.
    7. Set parts to DeconstructPattern(pattern, placeables).
    8. Decrement i by 1.
  8. Return parts.
Note
The index n to select across multiple templates permits the conjunction to be dependent on the context, as in Spanish, where either "y" or "e" may be selected, depending on the following word.

13.5.3 FormatList ( listFormat, list )

The abstract operation FormatList takes arguments listFormat (an Intl.ListFormat) and list (a List of Strings) and returns a String. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let parts be CreatePartsFromList(listFormat, list).
  2. Let result be an empty String.
  3. For each Record { [[Type]], [[Value]] } part of parts, do
    1. Set result to the string-concatenation of result and part.[[Value]].
  4. Return result.

13.5.4 FormatListToParts ( listFormat, list )

The abstract operation FormatListToParts takes arguments listFormat (an Intl.ListFormat) and list (a List of Strings) and returns an Array. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let parts be CreatePartsFromList(listFormat, list).
  2. Let result be ! ArrayCreate(0).
  3. Let n be 0.
  4. For each Record { [[Type]], [[Value]] } part of parts, do
    1. Let O be OrdinaryObjectCreate(%Object.prototype%).
    2. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(O, "type", part.[[Type]]).
    3. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(O, "value", part.[[Value]]).
    4. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(result, ! ToString(𝔽(n)), O).
    5. Increment n by 1.
  5. Return result.

13.5.5 StringListFromIterable ( iterable )

The abstract operation StringListFromIterable takes argument iterable (an ECMAScript language value) and returns either a normal completion containing a List of Strings or a throw completion. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If iterable is undefined, then
    1. Return a new empty List.
  2. Let iteratorRecord be ? GetIterator(iterable, sync).
  3. Let list be a new empty List.
  4. Repeat,
    1. Let next be ? IteratorStepValue(iteratorRecord).
    2. If next is done, then
      1. Return list.
    3. If Type(next) is not String, then
      1. Let error be ThrowCompletion(a newly created TypeError object).
      2. Return ? IteratorClose(iteratorRecord, error).
    4. Append next to list.
Note

This algorithm raises exceptions when it encounters values that are not Strings, because there is no obvious locale-aware coercion for arbitrary values.

14 Locale Objects

14.1 The Intl.Locale Constructor

The Locale constructor is the %Intl.Locale% intrinsic object and a standard built-in property of the Intl object.

14.1.1 Intl.Locale ( tag [ , options ] )

When the Intl.Locale function is called with an argument tag and an optional argument options, the following steps are taken:

  1. If NewTarget is undefined, throw a TypeError exception.
  2. Let relevantExtensionKeys be %Intl.Locale%.[[RelevantExtensionKeys]].
  3. Let internalSlotsList be « [[InitializedLocale]], [[Locale]], [[Calendar]], [[Collation]], [[HourCycle]], [[NumberingSystem]] ».
  4. If relevantExtensionKeys contains "kf", then
    1. Append [[CaseFirst]] to internalSlotsList.
  5. If relevantExtensionKeys contains "kn", then
    1. Append [[Numeric]] to internalSlotsList.
  6. Let locale be ? OrdinaryCreateFromConstructor(NewTarget, "%Intl.Locale.prototype%", internalSlotsList).
  7. If Type(tag) is not String or Object, throw a TypeError exception.
  8. If Type(tag) is Object and tag has an [[InitializedLocale]] internal slot, then
    1. Let tag be tag.[[Locale]].
  9. Else,
    1. Let tag be ? ToString(tag).
  10. Set options to ? CoerceOptionsToObject(options).
  11. Set tag to ? ApplyOptionsToTag(tag, options).
  12. Let opt be a new Record.
  13. Let calendar be ? GetOption(options, "calendar", string, empty, undefined).
  14. If calendar is not undefined, then
    1. If calendar cannot be matched by the type Unicode locale nonterminal, throw a RangeError exception.
  15. Set opt.[[ca]] to calendar.
  16. Let collation be ? GetOption(options, "collation", string, empty, undefined).
  17. If collation is not undefined, then
    1. If collation cannot be matched by the type Unicode locale nonterminal, throw a RangeError exception.
  18. Set opt.[[co]] to collation.
  19. Let hc be ? GetOption(options, "hourCycle", string, « "h11", "h12", "h23", "h24" », undefined).
  20. Set opt.[[hc]] to hc.
  21. Let kf be ? GetOption(options, "caseFirst", string, « "upper", "lower", "false" », undefined).
  22. Set opt.[[kf]] to kf.
  23. Let kn be ? GetOption(options, "numeric", boolean, empty, undefined).
  24. If kn is not undefined, set kn to ! ToString(kn).
  25. Set opt.[[kn]] to kn.
  26. Let numberingSystem be ? GetOption(options, "numberingSystem", string, empty, undefined).
  27. If numberingSystem is not undefined, then
    1. If numberingSystem cannot be matched by the type Unicode locale nonterminal, throw a RangeError exception.
  28. Set opt.[[nu]] to numberingSystem.
  29. Let r be ApplyUnicodeExtensionToTag(tag, opt, relevantExtensionKeys).
  30. Set locale.[[Locale]] to r.[[locale]].
  31. Set locale.[[Calendar]] to r.[[ca]].
  32. Set locale.[[Collation]] to r.[[co]].
  33. Set locale.[[HourCycle]] to r.[[hc]].
  34. If relevantExtensionKeys contains "kf", then
    1. Set locale.[[CaseFirst]] to r.[[kf]].
  35. If relevantExtensionKeys contains "kn", then
    1. If SameValue(r.[[kn]], "true") is true or r.[[kn]] is the empty String, then
      1. Set locale.[[Numeric]] to true.
    2. Else,
      1. Set locale.[[Numeric]] to false.
  36. Set locale.[[NumberingSystem]] to r.[[nu]].
  37. Return locale.

14.1.2 ApplyOptionsToTag ( tag, options )

The abstract operation ApplyOptionsToTag takes arguments tag (a String) and options (an Object) and returns either a normal completion containing a Unicode canonicalized locale identifier or a throw completion. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If IsStructurallyValidLanguageTag(tag) is false, throw a RangeError exception.
  2. Let language be ? GetOption(options, "language", string, empty, undefined).
  3. If language is not undefined, then
    1. If language cannot be matched by the unicode_language_subtag Unicode locale nonterminal, throw a RangeError exception.
  4. Let script be ? GetOption(options, "script", string, empty, undefined).
  5. If script is not undefined, then
    1. If script cannot be matched by the unicode_script_subtag Unicode locale nonterminal, throw a RangeError exception.
  6. Let region be ? GetOption(options, "region", string, empty, undefined).
  7. If region is not undefined, then
    1. If region cannot be matched by the unicode_region_subtag Unicode locale nonterminal, throw a RangeError exception.
  8. Set tag to CanonicalizeUnicodeLocaleId(tag).
  9. Assert: tag can be matched by the unicode_locale_id Unicode locale nonterminal.
  10. Let languageId be the longest prefix of tag matched by the unicode_language_id Unicode locale nonterminal.
  11. If language is undefined, set language to GetLocaleLanguage(languageId).
  12. If script is undefined, set script to GetLocaleScript(languageId).
  13. If region is undefined, set region to GetLocaleRegion(languageId).
  14. Let variants be GetLocaleVariants(languageId).
  15. Set languageId to language.
  16. If script is not undefined, set languageId to the string-concatenation of languageId, "-", and script.
  17. If region is not undefined, set languageId to the string-concatenation of languageId, "-", and region.
  18. If variants is not undefined, set languageId to the string-concatenation of languageId, "-", and variants.
  19. Set tag to tag with the substring matched by the unicode_language_id Unicode locale nonterminal replaced by the string languageId.
  20. Return CanonicalizeUnicodeLocaleId(tag).

14.1.3 ApplyUnicodeExtensionToTag ( tag, options, relevantExtensionKeys )

The abstract operation ApplyUnicodeExtensionToTag takes arguments tag (a String), options (a Record), and relevantExtensionKeys (a List of Strings) and returns a Record. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Assert: tag can be matched by the unicode_locale_id Unicode locale nonterminal.
  2. If tag contains a substring that is a Unicode locale extension sequence, then
    1. Let extension be the String value consisting of the substring of the Unicode locale extension sequence within tag.
    2. Let components be UnicodeExtensionComponents(extension).
    3. Let attributes be components.[[Attributes]].
    4. Let keywords be components.[[Keywords]].
  3. Else,
    1. Let attributes be a new empty List.
    2. Let keywords be a new empty List.
  4. Let result be a new Record.
  5. For each element key of relevantExtensionKeys, do
    1. Let value be undefined.
    2. If keywords contains an element whose [[Key]] is the same as key, then
      1. Let entry be the element of keywords whose [[Key]] is the same as key.
      2. Set value to entry.[[Value]].
    3. Else,
      1. Let entry be empty.
    4. Assert: options has a field [[<key>]].
    5. Let optionsValue be options.[[<key>]].
    6. If optionsValue is not undefined, then
      1. Assert: Type(optionsValue) is String.
      2. Set value to optionsValue.
      3. If entry is not empty, then
        1. Set entry.[[Value]] to value.
      4. Else,
        1. Append the Record { [[Key]]: key, [[Value]]: value } to keywords.
    7. Set result.[[<key>]] to value.
  6. Let locale be the String value that is tag with any Unicode locale extension sequences removed.
  7. Let newExtension be a Unicode BCP 47 U Extension based on attributes and keywords.
  8. If newExtension is not the empty String, then
    1. Set locale to InsertUnicodeExtensionAndCanonicalize(locale, newExtension).
  9. Set result.[[locale]] to locale.
  10. Return result.

14.2 Properties of the Intl.Locale Constructor

The Intl.Locale constructor has the following properties:

14.2.1 Intl.Locale.prototype

The value of Intl.Locale.prototype is %Intl.Locale.prototype%.

This property has the attributes { [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: false }.

14.2.2 Internal slots

The value of the [[RelevantExtensionKeys]] internal slot is « "ca", "co", "hc", "kf", "kn", "nu" ». If %Intl.Collator%.[[RelevantExtensionKeys]] does not contain "kf", then remove "kf" from %Intl.Locale%.[[RelevantExtensionKeys]]. If %Intl.Collator%.[[RelevantExtensionKeys]] does not contain "kn", then remove "kn" from %Intl.Locale%.[[RelevantExtensionKeys]].

14.3 Properties of the Intl.Locale Prototype Object

The Intl.Locale prototype object is itself an ordinary object. %Intl.Locale.prototype% is not an Intl.Locale instance and does not have an [[InitializedLocale]] internal slot or any of the other internal slots of Intl.Locale instance objects.

14.3.1 Intl.Locale.prototype.constructor

The initial value of Intl.Locale.prototype.constructor is %Intl.Locale%.

14.3.2 Intl.Locale.prototype[ @@toStringTag ]

The initial value of the @@toStringTag property is the String value "Intl.Locale".

This property has the attributes { [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: true }.

14.3.3 Intl.Locale.prototype.maximize ( )

  1. Let loc be the this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(loc, [[InitializedLocale]]).
  3. Let maximal be the result of the Add Likely Subtags algorithm applied to loc.[[Locale]]. If an error is signaled, set maximal to loc.[[Locale]].
  4. Return ! Construct(%Intl.Locale%, maximal).

14.3.4 Intl.Locale.prototype.minimize ( )

  1. Let loc be the this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(loc, [[InitializedLocale]]).
  3. Let minimal be the result of the Remove Likely Subtags algorithm applied to loc.[[Locale]]. If an error is signaled, set minimal to loc.[[Locale]].
  4. Return ! Construct(%Intl.Locale%, minimal).

14.3.5 Intl.Locale.prototype.toString ( )

  1. Let loc be the this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(loc, [[InitializedLocale]]).
  3. Return loc.[[Locale]].

14.3.6 get Intl.Locale.prototype.baseName

Intl.Locale.prototype.baseName is an accessor property whose set accessor function is undefined. Its get accessor function performs the following steps:

  1. Let loc be the this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(loc, [[InitializedLocale]]).
  3. Let locale be loc.[[Locale]].
  4. Return the longest prefix of locale matched by the unicode_language_id Unicode locale nonterminal.

14.3.7 get Intl.Locale.prototype.calendar

Intl.Locale.prototype.calendar is an accessor property whose set accessor function is undefined. Its get accessor function performs the following steps:

  1. Let loc be the this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(loc, [[InitializedLocale]]).
  3. Return loc.[[Calendar]].

14.3.8 get Intl.Locale.prototype.caseFirst

This property only exists if %Intl.Locale%.[[RelevantExtensionKeys]] contains "kf".

Intl.Locale.prototype.caseFirst is an accessor property whose set accessor function is undefined. Its get accessor function performs the following steps:

  1. Let loc be the this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(loc, [[InitializedLocale]]).
  3. Return loc.[[CaseFirst]].

14.3.9 get Intl.Locale.prototype.collation

Intl.Locale.prototype.collation is an accessor property whose set accessor function is undefined. Its get accessor function performs the following steps:

  1. Let loc be the this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(loc, [[InitializedLocale]]).
  3. Return loc.[[Collation]].

14.3.10 get Intl.Locale.prototype.hourCycle

Intl.Locale.prototype.hourCycle is an accessor property whose set accessor function is undefined. Its get accessor function performs the following steps:

  1. Let loc be the this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(loc, [[InitializedLocale]]).
  3. Return loc.[[HourCycle]].

14.3.11 get Intl.Locale.prototype.numeric

This property only exists if %Intl.Locale%.[[RelevantExtensionKeys]] contains "kn".

Intl.Locale.prototype.numeric is an accessor property whose set accessor function is undefined. Its get accessor function performs the following steps:

  1. Let loc be the this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(loc, [[InitializedLocale]]).
  3. Return loc.[[Numeric]].

14.3.12 get Intl.Locale.prototype.numberingSystem

Intl.Locale.prototype.numberingSystem is an accessor property whose set accessor function is undefined. Its get accessor function performs the following steps:

  1. Let loc be the this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(loc, [[InitializedLocale]]).
  3. Return loc.[[NumberingSystem]].

14.3.13 get Intl.Locale.prototype.language

Intl.Locale.prototype.language is an accessor property whose set accessor function is undefined. Its get accessor function performs the following steps:

  1. Let loc be the this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(loc, [[InitializedLocale]]).
  3. Return GetLocaleLanguage(loc.[[Locale]]).

14.3.14 get Intl.Locale.prototype.script

Intl.Locale.prototype.script is an accessor property whose set accessor function is undefined. Its get accessor function performs the following steps:

  1. Let loc be the this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(loc, [[InitializedLocale]]).
  3. Return GetLocaleScript(loc.[[Locale]]).

14.3.15 get Intl.Locale.prototype.region

Intl.Locale.prototype.region is an accessor property whose set accessor function is undefined. Its get accessor function performs the following steps:

  1. Let loc be the this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(loc, [[InitializedLocale]]).
  3. Return GetLocaleRegion(loc.[[Locale]]).

14.4 Properties of Intl.Locale Instances

Intl.Locale instances are ordinary objects that inherit properties from %Intl.Locale.prototype%.

Intl.Locale instances have an [[InitializedLocale]] internal slot.

Intl.Locale instances also have several internal slots that are computed by the constructor:

14.5 Abstract Operations for Locale Objects

14.5.1 GetLocaleLanguage ( locale )

The abstract operation GetLocaleLanguage takes argument locale (a String) and returns a String. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Assert: locale can be matched by the unicode_locale_id Unicode locale nonterminal.
  2. Let languageId be the longest prefix of locale matched by the unicode_language_id Unicode locale nonterminal.
  3. Assert: The first subtag of languageId can be matched by the unicode_language_subtag Unicode locale nonterminal.
  4. Return the first subtag of languageId.

14.5.2 GetLocaleScript ( locale )

The abstract operation GetLocaleScript takes argument locale (a String) and returns a String or undefined. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Assert: locale can be matched by the unicode_locale_id Unicode locale nonterminal.
  2. Let languageId be the longest prefix of locale matched by the unicode_language_id Unicode locale nonterminal.
  3. Assert: languageId contains at most one subtag that can be matched by the unicode_script_subtag Unicode locale nonterminal.
  4. If languageId contains a subtag matched by the unicode_script_subtag Unicode locale nonterminal, return that subtag.
  5. Return undefined.

14.5.3 GetLocaleRegion ( locale )

The abstract operation GetLocaleRegion takes argument locale (a String) and returns a String or undefined. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Assert: locale can be matched by the unicode_locale_id Unicode locale nonterminal.
  2. Let languageId be the longest prefix of locale matched by the unicode_language_id Unicode locale nonterminal.
  3. NOTE: A unicode_region_subtag subtag is only valid immediately after an initial unicode_language_subtag subtag, optionally with a single unicode_script_subtag subtag between them. In that position, unicode_region_subtag cannot be confused with any other valid subtag because all their productions are disjoint.
  4. Assert: The first subtag of languageId can be matched by the unicode_language_subtag Unicode locale nonterminal.
  5. Let languageIdTail be the suffix of languageId following the first subtag.
  6. Assert: languageIdTail contains at most one subtag that can be matched by the unicode_region_subtag Unicode locale nonterminal.
  7. If languageIdTail contains a subtag matched by the unicode_region_subtag Unicode locale nonterminal, return that subtag.
  8. Return undefined.

14.5.4 GetLocaleVariants ( locale )

The abstract operation GetLocaleVariants takes argument locale (a String) and returns a String or undefined. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Assert: locale can be matched by the unicode_locale_id Unicode locale nonterminal.
  2. Let languageId be the longest prefix of locale matched by the unicode_language_id Unicode locale nonterminal.
  3. If there is a non-empty suffix of languageId that is a consecutive sequence of substrings in which each element is a "-" followed by a substring that is matched by the unicode_variant_subtag Unicode locale nonterminal, then
    1. Let variants be the longest such suffix.
    2. Return the substring of variants from 1.
  4. Return undefined.

15 NumberFormat Objects

15.1 The Intl.NumberFormat Constructor

The NumberFormat constructor is the %Intl.NumberFormat% intrinsic object and a standard built-in property of the Intl object. Behaviour common to all service constructor properties of the Intl object is specified in 9.1.

15.1.1 Intl.NumberFormat ( [ locales [ , options ] ] )

When the Intl.NumberFormat function is called with optional arguments locales and options, the following steps are taken:

  1. If NewTarget is undefined, let newTarget be the active function object, else let newTarget be NewTarget.
  2. Let numberFormat be ? OrdinaryCreateFromConstructor(newTarget, "%Intl.NumberFormat.prototype%", « [[InitializedNumberFormat]], [[Locale]], [[LocaleData]], [[NumberingSystem]], [[Style]], [[Unit]], [[UnitDisplay]], [[Currency]], [[CurrencyDisplay]], [[CurrencySign]], [[MinimumIntegerDigits]], [[MinimumFractionDigits]], [[MaximumFractionDigits]], [[MinimumSignificantDigits]], [[MaximumSignificantDigits]], [[RoundingType]], [[Notation]], [[CompactDisplay]], [[UseGrouping]], [[SignDisplay]], [[RoundingIncrement]], [[RoundingMode]], [[ComputedRoundingPriority]], [[TrailingZeroDisplay]], [[BoundFormat]] »).
  3. Perform ? InitializeNumberFormat(numberFormat, locales, options).
  4. If the implementation supports the normative optional constructor mode of 4.3 Note 1, then
    1. Let this be the this value.
    2. Return ? ChainNumberFormat(numberFormat, NewTarget, this).
  5. Return numberFormat.

15.1.1.1 ChainNumberFormat ( numberFormat, newTarget, this )

The abstract operation ChainNumberFormat takes arguments numberFormat (an Intl.NumberFormat), newTarget (an ECMAScript language value), and this (an ECMAScript language value) and returns either a normal completion containing an Object or a throw completion. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If newTarget is undefined and ? OrdinaryHasInstance(%Intl.NumberFormat%, this) is true, then
    1. Perform ? DefinePropertyOrThrow(this, %Intl%.[[FallbackSymbol]], PropertyDescriptor{ [[Value]]: numberFormat, [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: false }).
    2. Return this.
  2. Return numberFormat.

15.1.2 InitializeNumberFormat ( numberFormat, locales, options )

The abstract operation InitializeNumberFormat takes arguments numberFormat (an Intl.NumberFormat), locales (an ECMAScript language value), and options (an ECMAScript language value) and returns either a normal completion containing unused or a throw completion. It initializes numberFormat as a NumberFormat object. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let requestedLocales be ? CanonicalizeLocaleList(locales).
  2. Set options to ? CoerceOptionsToObject(options).
  3. Let opt be a new Record.
  4. Let matcher be ? GetOption(options, "localeMatcher", string, « "lookup", "best fit" », "best fit").
  5. Set opt.[[localeMatcher]] to matcher.
  6. Let numberingSystem be ? GetOption(options, "numberingSystem", string, empty, undefined).
  7. If numberingSystem is not undefined, then
    1. If numberingSystem cannot be matched by the type Unicode locale nonterminal, throw a RangeError exception.
  8. Set opt.[[nu]] to numberingSystem.
  9. Let r be ResolveLocale(%Intl.NumberFormat%.[[AvailableLocales]], requestedLocales, opt, %Intl.NumberFormat%.[[RelevantExtensionKeys]], %Intl.NumberFormat%.[[LocaleData]]).
  10. Set numberFormat.[[Locale]] to r.[[Locale]].
  11. Set numberFormat.[[LocaleData]] to r.[[LocaleData]].
  12. Set numberFormat.[[NumberingSystem]] to r.[[nu]].
  13. Perform ? SetNumberFormatUnitOptions(numberFormat, options).
  14. Let style be numberFormat.[[Style]].
  15. If style is "currency", then
    1. Let currency be numberFormat.[[Currency]].
    2. Let cDigits be CurrencyDigits(currency).
    3. Let mnfdDefault be cDigits.
    4. Let mxfdDefault be cDigits.
  16. Else,
    1. Let mnfdDefault be 0.
    2. If style is "percent", then
      1. Let mxfdDefault be 0.
    3. Else,
      1. Let mxfdDefault be 3.
  17. Let notation be ? GetOption(options, "notation", string, « "standard", "scientific", "engineering", "compact" », "standard").
  18. Set numberFormat.[[Notation]] to notation.
  19. Perform ? SetNumberFormatDigitOptions(numberFormat, options, mnfdDefault, mxfdDefault, notation).
  20. Let compactDisplay be ? GetOption(options, "compactDisplay", string, « "short", "long" », "short").
  21. Let defaultUseGrouping be "auto".
  22. If notation is "compact", then
    1. Set numberFormat.[[CompactDisplay]] to compactDisplay.
    2. Set defaultUseGrouping to "min2".
  23. NOTE: For historical reasons, the strings "true" and "false" are accepted and replaced with the default value.
  24. Let useGrouping be ? GetBooleanOrStringNumberFormatOption(options, "useGrouping", « "min2", "auto", "always", "true", "false" », defaultUseGrouping).
  25. If useGrouping is "true" or useGrouping is "false", set useGrouping to defaultUseGrouping.
  26. If useGrouping is true, set useGrouping to "always".
  27. Set numberFormat.[[UseGrouping]] to useGrouping.
  28. Let signDisplay be ? GetOption(options, "signDisplay", string, « "auto", "never", "always", "exceptZero", "negative" », "auto").
  29. Set numberFormat.[[SignDisplay]] to signDisplay.
  30. Return unused.

15.1.3 SetNumberFormatDigitOptions ( intlObj, options, mnfdDefault, mxfdDefault, notation )

The abstract operation SetNumberFormatDigitOptions takes arguments intlObj (an Object), options (an Object), mnfdDefault (an integer), mxfdDefault (an integer), and notation (a String) and returns either a normal completion containing unused or a throw completion. It populates the internal slots of intlObj that affect locale-independent number rounding (see 15.5.3). It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let mnid be ? GetNumberOption(options, "minimumIntegerDigits,", 1, 21, 1).
  2. Let mnfd be ? Get(options, "minimumFractionDigits").
  3. Let mxfd be ? Get(options, "maximumFractionDigits").
  4. Let mnsd be ? Get(options, "minimumSignificantDigits").
  5. Let mxsd be ? Get(options, "maximumSignificantDigits").
  6. Set intlObj.[[MinimumIntegerDigits]] to mnid.
  7. Let roundingIncrement be ? GetNumberOption(options, "roundingIncrement", 1, 5000, 1).
  8. If roundingIncrement is not in « 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 25, 50, 100, 200, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 2500, 5000 », throw a RangeError exception.
  9. Let roundingMode be ? GetOption(options, "roundingMode", string, « "ceil", "floor", "expand", "trunc", "halfCeil", "halfFloor", "halfExpand", "halfTrunc", "halfEven" », "halfExpand").
  10. Let roundingPriority be ? GetOption(options, "roundingPriority", string, « "auto", "morePrecision", "lessPrecision" », "auto").
  11. Let trailingZeroDisplay be ? GetOption(options, "trailingZeroDisplay", string, « "auto", "stripIfInteger" », "auto").
  12. NOTE: All fields required by SetNumberFormatDigitOptions have now been read from options. The remainder of this AO interprets the options and may throw exceptions.
  13. If roundingIncrement is not 1, set mxfdDefault to mnfdDefault.
  14. Set intlObj.[[RoundingIncrement]] to roundingIncrement.
  15. Set intlObj.[[RoundingMode]] to roundingMode.
  16. Set intlObj.[[TrailingZeroDisplay]] to trailingZeroDisplay.
  17. If mnsd is not undefined or mxsd is not undefined, then
    1. Let hasSd be true.
  18. Else,
    1. Let hasSd be false.
  19. If mnfd is not undefined or mxfd is not undefined, then
    1. Let hasFd be true.
  20. Else,
    1. Let hasFd be false.
  21. Let needSd be true.
  22. Let needFd be true.
  23. If roundingPriority is "auto", then
    1. Set needSd to hasSd.
    2. If needSd is true, or hasFd is false and notation is "compact", then
      1. Set needFd to false.
  24. If needSd is true, then
    1. If hasSd is true, then
      1. Set intlObj.[[MinimumSignificantDigits]] to ? DefaultNumberOption(mnsd, 1, 21, 1).
      2. Set intlObj.[[MaximumSignificantDigits]] to ? DefaultNumberOption(mxsd, intlObj.[[MinimumSignificantDigits]], 21, 21).
    2. Else,
      1. Set intlObj.[[MinimumSignificantDigits]] to 1.
      2. Set intlObj.[[MaximumSignificantDigits]] to 21.
  25. If needFd is true, then
    1. If hasFd is true, then
      1. Set mnfd to ? DefaultNumberOption(mnfd, 0, 100, undefined).
      2. Set mxfd to ? DefaultNumberOption(mxfd, 0, 100, undefined).
      3. If mnfd is undefined, set mnfd to min(mnfdDefault, mxfd).
      4. Else if mxfd is undefined, set mxfd to max(mxfdDefault, mnfd).
      5. Else if mnfd is greater than mxfd, throw a RangeError exception.
      6. Set intlObj.[[MinimumFractionDigits]] to mnfd.
      7. Set intlObj.[[MaximumFractionDigits]] to mxfd.
    2. Else,
      1. Set intlObj.[[MinimumFractionDigits]] to mnfdDefault.
      2. Set intlObj.[[MaximumFractionDigits]] to mxfdDefault.
  26. If needSd is false and needFd is false, then
    1. Set intlObj.[[MinimumFractionDigits]] to 0.
    2. Set intlObj.[[MaximumFractionDigits]] to 0.
    3. Set intlObj.[[MinimumSignificantDigits]] to 1.
    4. Set intlObj.[[MaximumSignificantDigits]] to 2.
    5. Set intlObj.[[RoundingType]] to more-precision.
    6. Set intlObj.[[ComputedRoundingPriority]] to "morePrecision".
  27. Else if roundingPriority is "morePrecision", then
    1. Set intlObj.[[RoundingType]] to more-precision.
    2. Set intlObj.[[ComputedRoundingPriority]] to "morePrecision".
  28. Else if roundingPriority is "lessPrecision", then
    1. Set intlObj.[[RoundingType]] to less-precision.
    2. Set intlObj.[[ComputedRoundingPriority]] to "lessPrecision".
  29. Else if hasSd is true, then
    1. Set intlObj.[[RoundingType]] to significant-digits.
    2. Set intlObj.[[ComputedRoundingPriority]] to "auto".
  30. Else,
    1. Set intlObj.[[RoundingType]] to fraction-digits.
    2. Set intlObj.[[ComputedRoundingPriority]] to "auto".
  31. If roundingIncrement is not 1, then
    1. If intlObj.[[RoundingType]] is not fraction-digits, throw a TypeError exception.
    2. If intlObj.[[MaximumFractionDigits]] is not equal to intlObj.[[MinimumFractionDigits]], throw a RangeError exception.
  32. Return unused.

15.1.4 SetNumberFormatUnitOptions ( intlObj, options )

The abstract operation SetNumberFormatUnitOptions takes arguments intlObj (an Intl.NumberFormat) and options (an Object) and returns either a normal completion containing unused or a throw completion. It resolves the user-specified options relating to units onto intlObj. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let style be ? GetOption(options, "style", string, « "decimal", "percent", "currency", "unit" », "decimal").
  2. Set intlObj.[[Style]] to style.
  3. Let currency be ? GetOption(options, "currency", string, empty, undefined).
  4. If currency is undefined, then
    1. If style is "currency", throw a TypeError exception.
  5. Else,
    1. If IsWellFormedCurrencyCode(currency) is false, throw a RangeError exception.
  6. Let currencyDisplay be ? GetOption(options, "currencyDisplay", string, « "code", "symbol", "narrowSymbol", "name" », "symbol").
  7. Let currencySign be ? GetOption(options, "currencySign", string, « "standard", "accounting" », "standard").
  8. Let unit be ? GetOption(options, "unit", string, empty, undefined).
  9. If unit is undefined, then
    1. If style is "unit", throw a TypeError exception.
  10. Else,
    1. If IsWellFormedUnitIdentifier(unit) is false, throw a RangeError exception.
  11. Let unitDisplay be ? GetOption(options, "unitDisplay", string, « "short", "narrow", "long" », "short").
  12. If style is "currency", then
    1. Set intlObj.[[Currency]] to the ASCII-uppercase of currency.
    2. Set intlObj.[[CurrencyDisplay]] to currencyDisplay.
    3. Set intlObj.[[CurrencySign]] to currencySign.
  13. If style is "unit", then
    1. Set intlObj.[[Unit]] to unit.
    2. Set intlObj.[[UnitDisplay]] to unitDisplay.
  14. Return unused.

15.2 Properties of the Intl.NumberFormat Constructor

The Intl.NumberFormat constructor has the following properties:

15.2.1 Intl.NumberFormat.prototype

The value of Intl.NumberFormat.prototype is %Intl.NumberFormat.prototype%.

This property has the attributes { [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: false }.

15.2.2 Intl.NumberFormat.supportedLocalesOf ( locales [ , options ] )

When the supportedLocalesOf method is called with arguments locales and options, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let availableLocales be %Intl.NumberFormat%.[[AvailableLocales]].
  2. Let requestedLocales be ? CanonicalizeLocaleList(locales).
  3. Return ? SupportedLocales(availableLocales, requestedLocales, options).

15.2.3 Internal slots

The value of the [[AvailableLocales]] internal slot is implementation-defined within the constraints described in 9.1.

The value of the [[RelevantExtensionKeys]] internal slot is « "nu" ».

Note 1
Unicode Technical Standard #35 Part 1 Core, Section 3.6.1 Key and Type Definitions describes three locale extension keys that are relevant to number formatting: "cu" for currency, "cf" for currency format style, and "nu" for numbering system. Intl.NumberFormat, however, requires that the currency of a currency format is specified through the currency property in the options objects, and the currency format style of a currency format is specified through the currencySign property in the options objects.

The value of the [[LocaleData]] internal slot is implementation-defined within the constraints described in 9.1 and the following additional constraints:

  • The list that is the value of the "nu" field of any locale field of [[LocaleData]] must not include the values "native", "traditio", or "finance".
  • [[LocaleData]].[[<locale>]] must have a [[patterns]] field for all locale values locale. The value of this field must be a Record, which must have fields with the names of the four number format styles: "decimal", "percent", "currency", and "unit".
  • The two fields "currency" and "unit" noted above must be Records with at least one field, "fallback". The "currency" may have additional fields with keys corresponding to currency codes according to 6.3. Each field of "currency" must be a Record with fields corresponding to the possible currencyDisplay values: "code", "symbol", "narrowSymbol", and "name". Each of those fields must contain a Record with fields corresponding to the possible currencySign values: "standard" or "accounting". The "unit" field (of [[LocaleData]].[[<locale>]]) may have additional fields beyond the required field "fallback" with keys corresponding to core measurement unit identifiers corresponding to 6.6. Each field of "unit" must be a Record with fields corresponding to the possible unitDisplay values: "narrow", "short", and "long".
  • All of the leaf fields so far described for the patterns tree ("decimal", "percent", great-grandchildren of "currency", and grandchildren of "unit") must be Records with the keys "positivePattern", "zeroPattern", and "negativePattern".
  • The value of the aforementioned fields (the sign-dependent pattern fields) must be string values that must contain the substring "{number}". "positivePattern" must contain the substring "{plusSign}" but not "{minusSign}"; "negativePattern" must contain the substring "{minusSign}" but not "{plusSign}"; and "zeroPattern" must not contain either "{plusSign}" or "{minusSign}". Additionally, the values within the "percent" field must also contain the substring "{percentSign}"; the values within the "currency" field must also contain one or more of the following substrings: "{currencyCode}", "{currencyPrefix}", or "{currencySuffix}"; and the values within the "unit" field must also contain one or more of the following substrings: "{unitPrefix}" or "{unitSuffix}". The pattern strings, when interpreted as a sequence of UTF-16 encoded code points as described in es2024, 6.1.4, must not contain any code points in the General Category "Number, decimal digit" as specified by the Unicode Standard.
  • [[LocaleData]].[[<locale>]] must also have a [[notationSubPatterns]] field for all locale values locale. The value of this field must be a Record, which must have two fields: [[scientific]] and [[compact]]. The [[scientific]] field must be a string value containing the substrings "{number}", "{scientificSeparator}", and "{scientificExponent}". The [[compact]] field must be a Record with two fields: "short" and "long". Each of these fields must be a Record with integer keys corresponding to all discrete magnitudes the implementation supports for compact notation. Each of these fields must be a string value which may contain the substring "{number}". Strings descended from "short" must contain the substring "{compactSymbol}", and strings descended from "long" must contain the substring "{compactName}".
Note 2
It is recommended that implementations use the locale data provided by the Common Locale Data Repository (available at https://cldr.unicode.org/).

15.3 Properties of the Intl.NumberFormat Prototype Object

The Intl.NumberFormat prototype object is itself an ordinary object. %Intl.NumberFormat.prototype% is not an Intl.NumberFormat instance and does not have an [[InitializedNumberFormat]] internal slot or any of the other internal slots of Intl.NumberFormat instance objects.

15.3.1 Intl.NumberFormat.prototype.constructor

The initial value of Intl.NumberFormat.prototype.constructor is %Intl.NumberFormat%.

15.3.2 Intl.NumberFormat.prototype [ @@toStringTag ]

The initial value of the @@toStringTag property is the String value "Intl.NumberFormat".

This property has the attributes { [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: true }.

15.3.3 get Intl.NumberFormat.prototype.format

Intl.NumberFormat.prototype.format is an accessor property whose set accessor function is undefined. Its get accessor function performs the following steps:

  1. Let nf be the this value.
  2. If the implementation supports the normative optional constructor mode of 4.3 Note 1, then
    1. Set nf to ? UnwrapNumberFormat(nf).
  3. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(nf, [[InitializedNumberFormat]]).
  4. If nf.[[BoundFormat]] is undefined, then
    1. Let F be a new built-in function object as defined in Number Format Functions (15.5.2).
    2. Set F.[[NumberFormat]] to nf.
    3. Set nf.[[BoundFormat]] to F.
  5. Return nf.[[BoundFormat]].
Note
The returned function is bound to nf so that it can be passed directly to Array.prototype.map or other functions. This is considered a historical artefact, as part of a convention which is no longer followed for new features, but is preserved to maintain compatibility with existing programs.

15.3.4 Intl.NumberFormat.prototype.formatToParts ( value )

When the formatToParts method is called with an optional argument value, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let nf be the this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(nf, [[InitializedNumberFormat]]).
  3. Let x be ? ToIntlMathematicalValue(value).
  4. Return FormatNumericToParts(nf, x).

15.3.5 Intl.NumberFormat.prototype.formatRange ( start, end )

When the formatRange method is called with arguments start and end, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let nf be the this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(nf, [[InitializedNumberFormat]]).
  3. If start is undefined or end is undefined, throw a TypeError exception.
  4. Let x be ? ToIntlMathematicalValue(start).
  5. Let y be ? ToIntlMathematicalValue(end).
  6. Return ? FormatNumericRange(nf, x, y).

15.3.6 Intl.NumberFormat.prototype.formatRangeToParts ( start, end )

When the formatRangeToParts method is called with arguments start and end, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let nf be the this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(nf, [[InitializedNumberFormat]]).
  3. If start is undefined or end is undefined, throw a TypeError exception.
  4. Let x be ? ToIntlMathematicalValue(start).
  5. Let y be ? ToIntlMathematicalValue(end).
  6. Return ? FormatNumericRangeToParts(nf, x, y).

15.3.7 Intl.NumberFormat.prototype.resolvedOptions ( )

This function provides access to the locale and options computed during initialization of the object.

  1. Let nf be the this value.
  2. If the implementation supports the normative optional constructor mode of 4.3 Note 1, then
    1. Set nf to ? UnwrapNumberFormat(nf).
  3. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(nf, [[InitializedNumberFormat]]).
  4. Let options be OrdinaryObjectCreate(%Object.prototype%).
  5. For each row of Table 12, except the header row, in table order, do
    1. Let p be the Property value of the current row.
    2. Let v be the value of nf's internal slot whose name is the Internal Slot value of the current row.
    3. If v is not undefined, then
      1. If there is a Conversion value in the current row, then
        1. Assert: The Conversion value of the current row is number.
        2. Set v to 𝔽(v).
      2. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(options, p, v).
  6. Return options.
Table 12: Resolved Options of NumberFormat Instances
Internal Slot Property Conversion
[[Locale]] "locale"
[[NumberingSystem]] "numberingSystem"
[[Style]] "style"
[[Currency]] "currency"
[[CurrencyDisplay]] "currencyDisplay"
[[CurrencySign]] "currencySign"
[[Unit]] "unit"
[[UnitDisplay]] "unitDisplay"
[[MinimumIntegerDigits]] "minimumIntegerDigits" number
[[MinimumFractionDigits]] "minimumFractionDigits" number
[[MaximumFractionDigits]] "maximumFractionDigits" number
[[MinimumSignificantDigits]] "minimumSignificantDigits" number
[[MaximumSignificantDigits]] "maximumSignificantDigits" number
[[UseGrouping]] "useGrouping"
[[Notation]] "notation"
[[CompactDisplay]] "compactDisplay"
[[SignDisplay]] "signDisplay"
[[RoundingIncrement]] "roundingIncrement" number
[[RoundingMode]] "roundingMode"
[[ComputedRoundingPriority]] "roundingPriority"
[[TrailingZeroDisplay]] "trailingZeroDisplay"

15.4 Properties of Intl.NumberFormat Instances

Intl.NumberFormat instances are ordinary objects that inherit properties from %Intl.NumberFormat.prototype%.

Intl.NumberFormat instances have an [[InitializedNumberFormat]] internal slot.

Intl.NumberFormat instances also have several internal slots that are computed by the constructor:

  • [[Locale]] is a String value with the language tag of the locale whose localization is used for formatting.
  • [[LocaleData]] is a Record representing the data available to the implementation for formatting. It is the value of an entry in %Intl.NumberFormat%.[[LocaleData]] associated with either the value of [[Locale]] or a prefix thereof.
  • [[NumberingSystem]] is a String value with the "type" given in Unicode Technical Standard #35 Part 1 Core, Section 3.6.1 Key and Type Definitions for the numbering system used for formatting.
  • [[Style]] is one of the String values "decimal", "currency", "percent", or "unit", identifying the type of quantity being measured.
  • [[Currency]] is a String value with the currency code identifying the currency to be used if formatting with the "currency" unit type. It is only used when [[Style]] has the value "currency".
  • [[CurrencyDisplay]] is one of the String values "code", "symbol", "narrowSymbol", or "name", specifying whether to display the currency as an ISO 4217 alphabetic currency code, a localized currency symbol, or a localized currency name if formatting with the "currency" style. It is only used when [[Style]] has the value "currency".
  • [[CurrencySign]] is one of the String values "standard" or "accounting", specifying whether to render negative numbers in accounting format, often signified by parenthesis. It is only used when [[Style]] has the value "currency" and when [[SignDisplay]] is not "never".
  • [[Unit]] is a core unit identifier. It is only used when [[Style]] has the value "unit".
  • [[UnitDisplay]] is one of the String values "short", "narrow", or "long", specifying whether to display the unit as a symbol, narrow symbol, or localized long name if formatting with the "unit" style. It is only used when [[Style]] has the value "unit".
  • [[MinimumIntegerDigits]] is a non-negative integer indicating the minimum integer digits to be used. Numbers will be padded with leading zeroes if necessary.
  • [[MinimumFractionDigits]] and [[MaximumFractionDigits]] are non-negative integers indicating the minimum and maximum fraction digits to be used. Numbers will be rounded or padded with trailing zeroes if necessary. These properties are only used when [[RoundingType]] is fraction-digits, more-precision, or less-precision.
  • [[MinimumSignificantDigits]] and [[MaximumSignificantDigits]] are positive integers indicating the minimum and maximum fraction digits to be shown. If present, the formatter uses however many fraction digits are required to display the specified number of significant digits. These properties are only used when [[RoundingType]] is significant-digits, more-precision, or less-precision.
  • [[UseGrouping]] is a Boolean or String value indicating the conditions under which a grouping separator should be used. The positions of grouping separators, and whether to display grouping separators for a formatted number, is implementation-defined. A value "always" hints the implementation to display grouping separators if possible; "min2", if there are at least 2 digits in a group; "auto", if the locale prefers to use grouping separators for the formatted number. A value false disables grouping separators.
  • [[RoundingType]] is one of the values fraction-digits, significant-digits, more-precision, or less-precision, indicating which rounding strategy to use. If fraction-digits, formatted numbers are rounded according to [[MinimumFractionDigits]] and [[MaximumFractionDigits]], as described above. If significant-digits, formatted numbers are rounded according to [[MinimumSignificantDigits]] and [[MaximumSignificantDigits]] as described above. If more-precision or less-precision, all four of those settings are used, with specific rules for disambiguating when to use one set versus the other. [[RoundingType]] is derived from the "roundingPriority" option.
  • [[ComputedRoundingPriority]] is one of the String values "auto", "morePrecision", or "lessPrecision". It is only used in 15.3.7 to convert [[RoundingType]] back to a valid "roundingPriority" option.
  • [[Notation]] is one of the String values "standard", "scientific", "engineering", or "compact", specifying whether the formatted number should be displayed without scaling, scaled to the units place with the power of ten in scientific notation, scaled to the nearest thousand with the power of ten in scientific notation, or scaled to the nearest locale-dependent compact decimal notation power of ten with the corresponding compact decimal notation affix.
  • [[CompactDisplay]] is one of the String values "short" or "long", specifying whether to display compact notation affixes in short form ("5K") or long form ("5 thousand") if formatting with the "compact" notation. It is only used when [[Notation]] has the value "compact".
  • [[SignDisplay]] is one of the String values "auto", "always", "never", "exceptZero", or "negative", specifying when to include a sign (with non-"auto" options respectively corresponding with inclusion always, never, only for non-zero numbers, or only for non-zero negative numbers). In scientific notation, this slot affects the sign display of the mantissa but not the exponent.
  • [[RoundingIncrement]] is an integer that evenly divides 10, 100, 1000, or 10000 into tenths, fifths, quarters, or halves. It indicates the increment at which rounding should take place relative to the calculated rounding magnitude. For example, if [[MaximumFractionDigits]] is 2 and [[RoundingIncrement]] is 5, then formatted numbers are rounded to the nearest 0.05 ("nickel rounding").
  • [[RoundingMode]] is one of the String values in the Identifier column of Table 13, specifying which rounding mode to use.
  • [[TrailingZeroDisplay]] is one of the String values "auto" or "stripIfInteger", indicating whether to strip trailing zeros if the formatted number is an integer (i.e., has no non-zero fraction digit).
Table 13: Rounding modes in Intl.NumberFormat
Identifier Description Examples: Round to 0 fraction digits
-1.5 0.4 0.5 0.6 1.5
"ceil" Toward positive infinity ⬆️ [-1] ⬆️ [1] ⬆️ [1] ⬆️ [1] ⬆️ [2]
"floor" Toward negative infinity ⬇️ [-2] ⬇️ [0] ⬇️ [0] ⬇️ [0] ⬇️ [1]
"expand" Away from zero ⬇️ [-2] ⬆️ [1] ⬆️ [1] ⬆️ [1] ⬆️ [2]
"trunc" Toward zero ⬆️ [-1] ⬇️ [0] ⬇️ [0] ⬇️ [0] ⬇️ [1]
"halfCeil" Ties toward positive infinity ⬆️ [-1] ⬇️ [0] ⬆️ [1] ⬆️ [1] ⬆️ [2]
"halfFloor" Ties toward negative infinity ⬇️ [-2] ⬇️ [0] ⬇️ [0] ⬆️ [1] ⬇️ [1]
"halfExpand" Ties away from zero ⬇️ [-2] ⬇️ [0] ⬆️ [1] ⬆️ [1] ⬆️ [2]
"halfTrunc" Ties toward zero ⬆️ [-1] ⬇️ [0] ⬇️ [0] ⬆️ [1] ⬇️ [1]
"halfEven" Ties toward an even rounding increment multiple ⬇️ [-2] ⬇️ [0] ⬇️ [0] ⬆️ [1] ⬆️ [2]
Note
The examples are illustrative of the unique behaviour of each option. ⬆️ means "resolves toward positive infinity"; ⬇️ means "resolves toward negative infinity".

Finally, Intl.NumberFormat instances have a [[BoundFormat]] internal slot that caches the function returned by the format accessor (15.3.3).

15.5 Abstract Operations for NumberFormat Objects

15.5.1 CurrencyDigits ( currency )

The abstract operation CurrencyDigits takes argument currency (a String) and returns a non-negative integer. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Assert: IsWellFormedCurrencyCode(currency) is true.
  2. Assert: currency is equal to the ASCII-uppercase of currency.
  3. If the ISO 4217 currency and funds code list contains currency as an alphabetic code, return the minor unit value corresponding to the currency from the list; otherwise, return 2.

15.5.2 Number Format Functions

A Number format function is an anonymous built-in function that has a [[NumberFormat]] internal slot.

When a Number format function F is called with optional argument value, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let nf be F.[[NumberFormat]].
  2. Assert: Type(nf) is Object and nf has an [[InitializedNumberFormat]] internal slot.
  3. If value is not provided, let value be undefined.
  4. Let x be ? ToIntlMathematicalValue(value).
  5. Return FormatNumeric(nf, x).

The "length" property of a Number format function is 1𝔽.

15.5.3 FormatNumericToString ( intlObject, x )

The abstract operation FormatNumericToString takes arguments intlObject (an Object) and x (a mathematical value or negative-zero) and returns a Record with fields [[RoundedNumber]] (a mathematical value or negative-zero) and [[FormattedString]] (a String). It rounds x to an Intl mathematical value according to the internal slots of intlObject. The [[RoundedNumber]] field contains the rounded result value and the [[FormattedString]] field contains a String value representation of that result formatted according to the internal slots of intlObject. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Assert: intlObject has [[RoundingMode]], [[RoundingType]], [[MinimumSignificantDigits]], [[MaximumSignificantDigits]], [[MinimumIntegerDigits]], [[MinimumFractionDigits]], [[MaximumFractionDigits]], [[RoundingIncrement]], and [[TrailingZeroDisplay]] internal slots.
  2. If x is negative-zero, then
    1. Let sign be negative.
    2. Set x to 0.
  3. Else,
    1. Assert: x is a mathematical value.
    2. If x < 0, let sign be negative; else let sign be positive.
    3. If sign is negative, then
      1. Set x to -x.
  4. Let unsignedRoundingMode be GetUnsignedRoundingMode(intlObject.[[RoundingMode]], sign).
  5. If intlObject.[[RoundingType]] is significant-digits, then
    1. Let result be ToRawPrecision(x, intlObject.[[MinimumSignificantDigits]], intlObject.[[MaximumSignificantDigits]], unsignedRoundingMode).
  6. Else if intlObject.[[RoundingType]] is fraction-digits, then
    1. Let result be ToRawFixed(x, intlObject.[[MinimumFractionDigits]], intlObject.[[MaximumFractionDigits]], intlObject.[[RoundingIncrement]], unsignedRoundingMode).
  7. Else,
    1. Let sResult be ToRawPrecision(x, intlObject.[[MinimumSignificantDigits]], intlObject.[[MaximumSignificantDigits]], unsignedRoundingMode).
    2. Let fResult be ToRawFixed(x, intlObject.[[MinimumFractionDigits]], intlObject.[[MaximumFractionDigits]], intlObject.[[RoundingIncrement]], unsignedRoundingMode).
    3. If intlObject.[[RoundingType]] is more-precision, then
      1. If sResult.[[RoundingMagnitude]]fResult.[[RoundingMagnitude]], then
        1. Let result be sResult.
      2. Else,
        1. Let result be fResult.
    4. Else,
      1. Assert: intlObject.[[RoundingType]] is less-precision.
      2. If sResult.[[RoundingMagnitude]]fResult.[[RoundingMagnitude]], then
        1. Let result be fResult.
      3. Else,
        1. Let result be sResult.
  8. Set x to result.[[RoundedNumber]].
  9. Let string be result.[[FormattedString]].
  10. If intlObject.[[TrailingZeroDisplay]] is "stripIfInteger" and x modulo 1 = 0, then
    1. Let i be StringIndexOf(string, ".", 0).
    2. If i ≠ -1, set string to the substring of string from 0 to i.
  11. Let int be result.[[IntegerDigitsCount]].
  12. Let minInteger be intlObject.[[MinimumIntegerDigits]].
  13. If int < minInteger, then
    1. Let forwardZeros be the String consisting of minInteger - int occurrences of the code unit 0x0030 (DIGIT ZERO).
    2. Set string to the string-concatenation of forwardZeros and string.
  14. If sign is negative, then
    1. If x is 0, set x to negative-zero. Otherwise, set x to -x.
  15. Return the Record { [[RoundedNumber]]: x, [[FormattedString]]: string }.

15.5.4 PartitionNumberPattern ( numberFormat, x )

The abstract operation PartitionNumberPattern takes arguments numberFormat (an object initialized as a NumberFormat) and x (an Intl mathematical value) and returns a List of Records with fields [[Type]] (a String) and [[Value]] (a String). It creates the parts representing the mathematical value of x according to the effective locale and the formatting options of numberFormat. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let exponent be 0.
  2. If x is not-a-number, then
    1. Let n be an implementation- and locale-dependent (ILD) String value indicating the NaN value.
  3. Else if x is positive-infinity, then
    1. Let n be an ILD String value indicating positive infinity.
  4. Else if x is negative-infinity, then
    1. Let n be an ILD String value indicating negative infinity.
  5. Else,
    1. If x is not negative-zero, then
      1. Assert: x is a mathematical value.
      2. If numberFormat.[[Style]] is "percent", set x be 100 × x.
      3. Set exponent to ComputeExponent(numberFormat, x).
      4. Set x to x × 10-exponent.
    2. Let formatNumberResult be FormatNumericToString(numberFormat, x).
    3. Let n be formatNumberResult.[[FormattedString]].
    4. Set x to formatNumberResult.[[RoundedNumber]].
  6. Let pattern be GetNumberFormatPattern(numberFormat, x).
  7. Let result be a new empty List.
  8. Let patternParts be PartitionPattern(pattern).
  9. For each Record { [[Type]], [[Value]] } patternPart of patternParts, do
    1. Let p be patternPart.[[Type]].
    2. If p is "literal", then
      1. Append the Record { [[Type]]: "literal", [[Value]]: patternPart.[[Value]] } to result.
    3. Else if p is equal to "number", then
      1. Let notationSubParts be PartitionNotationSubPattern(numberFormat, x, n, exponent).
      2. For each Record { [[Type]], [[Value]] } subPart of notationSubParts, do
        1. Append subPart to result.
    4. Else if p is equal to "plusSign", then
      1. Let plusSignSymbol be the ILND String representing the plus sign.
      2. Append the Record { [[Type]]: "plusSign", [[Value]]: plusSignSymbol } to result.
    5. Else if p is equal to "minusSign", then
      1. Let minusSignSymbol be the ILND String representing the minus sign.
      2. Append the Record { [[Type]]: "minusSign", [[Value]]: minusSignSymbol } to result.
    6. Else if p is equal to "percentSign" and numberFormat.[[Style]] is "percent", then
      1. Let percentSignSymbol be the ILND String representing the percent sign.
      2. Append the Record { [[Type]]: "percentSign", [[Value]]: percentSignSymbol } to result.
    7. Else if p is equal to "unitPrefix" and numberFormat.[[Style]] is "unit", then
      1. Let unit be numberFormat.[[Unit]].
      2. Let unitDisplay be numberFormat.[[UnitDisplay]].
      3. Let mu be an ILD String value representing unit before x in unitDisplay form, which may depend on x in languages having different plural forms.
      4. Append the Record { [[Type]]: "unit", [[Value]]: mu } to result.
    8. Else if p is equal to "unitSuffix" and numberFormat.[[Style]] is "unit", then
      1. Let unit be numberFormat.[[Unit]].
      2. Let unitDisplay be numberFormat.[[UnitDisplay]].
      3. Let mu be an ILD String value representing unit after x in unitDisplay form, which may depend on x in languages having different plural forms.
      4. Append the Record { [[Type]]: "unit", [[Value]]: mu } to result.
    9. Else if p is equal to "currencyCode" and numberFormat.[[Style]] is "currency", then
      1. Let currency be numberFormat.[[Currency]].
      2. Let cd be currency.
      3. Append the Record { [[Type]]: "currency", [[Value]]: cd } to result.
    10. Else if p is equal to "currencyPrefix" and numberFormat.[[Style]] is "currency", then
      1. Let currency be numberFormat.[[Currency]].
      2. Let currencyDisplay be numberFormat.[[CurrencyDisplay]].
      3. Let cd be an ILD String value representing currency before x in currencyDisplay form, which may depend on x in languages having different plural forms.
      4. Append the Record { [[Type]]: "currency", [[Value]]: cd } to result.
    11. Else if p is equal to "currencySuffix" and numberFormat.[[Style]] is "currency", then
      1. Let currency be numberFormat.[[Currency]].
      2. Let currencyDisplay be numberFormat.[[CurrencyDisplay]].
      3. Let cd be an ILD String value representing currency after x in currencyDisplay form, which may depend on x in languages having different plural forms. If the implementation does not have such a representation of currency, use currency itself.
      4. Append the Record { [[Type]]: "currency", [[Value]]: cd } to result.
    12. Else,
      1. Let unknown be an ILND String based on x and p.
      2. Append the Record { [[Type]]: "unknown", [[Value]]: unknown } to result.
  10. Return result.

15.5.5 PartitionNotationSubPattern ( numberFormat, x, n, exponent )

The abstract operation PartitionNotationSubPattern takes arguments numberFormat (an Intl.NumberFormat), x (an Intl mathematical value), n (a String), and exponent (an integer) and returns a List of Records with fields [[Type]] (a String) and [[Value]] (a String). x is an Intl mathematical value after rounding is applied and n is an intermediate formatted string. It creates the corresponding parts for the number and notation according to the effective locale and the formatting options of numberFormat. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let result be a new empty List.
  2. If x is not-a-number, then
    1. Append the Record { [[Type]]: "nan", [[Value]]: n } to result.
  3. Else if x is positive-infinity or negative-infinity, then
    1. Append the Record { [[Type]]: "infinity", [[Value]]: n } to result.
  4. Else,
    1. Let notationSubPattern be GetNotationSubPattern(numberFormat, exponent).
    2. Let patternParts be PartitionPattern(notationSubPattern).
    3. For each Record { [[Type]], [[Value]] } patternPart of patternParts, do
      1. Let p be patternPart.[[Type]].
      2. If p is "literal", then
        1. Append the Record { [[Type]]: "literal", [[Value]]: patternPart.[[Value]] } to result.
      3. Else if p is equal to "number", then
        1. If the numberFormat.[[NumberingSystem]] matches one of the values in the Numbering System column of Table 14 below, then
          1. Let digits be a List whose elements are the code points specified in the Digits column of the matching row in Table 14.
          2. Assert: The length of digits is 10.
          3. Let transliterated be the empty String.
          4. Let len be the length of n.
          5. Let position be 0.
          6. Repeat, while position < len,
            1. Let c be the code unit at index position within n.
            2. If 0x0030 ≤ c ≤ 0x0039, then
              1. NOTE: c is an ASCII digit.
              2. Let i be c - 0x0030.
              3. Set c to CodePointsToStringdigits[i] »).
            3. Set transliterated to the string-concatenation of transliterated and c.
            4. Set position to position + 1.
          7. Set n to transliterated.
        2. Else,
          1. Use an implementation dependent algorithm to map n to the appropriate representation of n in the given numbering system.
        3. Let decimalSepIndex be StringIndexOf(n, ".", 0).
        4. If decimalSepIndex > 0, then
          1. Let integer be the substring of n from position 0, inclusive, to position decimalSepIndex, exclusive.
          2. Let fraction be the substring of n from position decimalSepIndex, exclusive, to the end of n.
        5. Else,
          1. Let integer be n.
          2. Let fraction be undefined.
        6. If the numberFormat.[[UseGrouping]] is false, then
          1. Append the Record { [[Type]]: "integer", [[Value]]: integer } to result.
        7. Else,
          1. Let groupSepSymbol be the implementation-, locale-, and numbering system-dependent (ILND) String representing the grouping separator.
          2. Let groups be a List whose elements are, in left to right order, the substrings defined by ILND set of locations within the integer, which may depend on the value of numberFormat.[[UseGrouping]].
          3. Assert: The number of elements in groups List is greater than 0.
          4. Repeat, while groups List is not empty,
            1. Remove the first element from groups and let integerGroup be the value of that element.
            2. Append the Record { [[Type]]: "integer", [[Value]]: integerGroup } to result.
            3. If groups List is not empty, then
              1. Append the Record { [[Type]]: "group", [[Value]]: groupSepSymbol } to result.
        8. If fraction is not undefined, then
          1. Let decimalSepSymbol be the ILND String representing the decimal separator.
          2. Append the Record { [[Type]]: "decimal", [[Value]]: decimalSepSymbol } to result.
          3. Append the Record { [[Type]]: "fraction", [[Value]]: fraction } to result.
      4. Else if p is equal to "compactSymbol", then
        1. Let compactSymbol be an ILD string representing exponent in short form, which may depend on x in languages having different plural forms. The implementation must be able to provide this string, or else the pattern would not have a "{compactSymbol}" placeholder.
        2. Append the Record { [[Type]]: "compact", [[Value]]: compactSymbol } to result.
      5. Else if p is equal to "compactName", then
        1. Let compactName be an ILD string representing exponent in long form, which may depend on x in languages having different plural forms. The implementation must be able to provide this string, or else the pattern would not have a "{compactName}" placeholder.
        2. Append the Record { [[Type]]: "compact", [[Value]]: compactName } to result.
      6. Else if p is equal to "scientificSeparator", then
        1. Let scientificSeparator be the ILND String representing the exponent separator.
        2. Append the Record { [[Type]]: "exponentSeparator", [[Value]]: scientificSeparator } to result.
      7. Else if p is equal to "scientificExponent", then
        1. If exponent < 0, then
          1. Let minusSignSymbol be the ILND String representing the minus sign.
          2. Append the Record { [[Type]]: "exponentMinusSign", [[Value]]: minusSignSymbol } to result.
          3. Let exponent be -exponent.
        2. Let exponentResult be ToRawFixed(exponent, 0, 0, 1, undefined).
        3. Append the Record { [[Type]]: "exponentInteger", [[Value]]: exponentResult.[[FormattedString]] } to result.
      8. Else,
        1. Let unknown be an ILND String based on x and p.
        2. Append the Record { [[Type]]: "unknown", [[Value]]: unknown } to result.
  5. Return result.
Table 14: Numbering systems with simple digit mappings
Numbering System Digits
adlm U+1E950 to U+1E959
ahom U+11730 to U+11739
arab U+0660 to U+0669
arabext U+06F0 to U+06F9
bali U+1B50 to U+1B59
beng U+09E6 to U+09EF
bhks U+11C50 to U+11C59
brah U+11066 to U+1106F
cakm U+11136 to U+1113F
cham U+AA50 to U+AA59
deva U+0966 to U+096F
diak U+11950 to U+11959
fullwide U+FF10 to U+FF19
gong U+11DA0 to U+11DA9
gonm U+11D50 to U+11D59
gujr U+0AE6 to U+0AEF
guru U+0A66 to U+0A6F
hanidec U+3007, U+4E00, U+4E8C, U+4E09, U+56DB, U+4E94, U+516D, U+4E03, U+516B, U+4E5D
hmng U+16B50 to U+16B59
hmnp U+1E140 to U+1E149
java U+A9D0 to U+A9D9
kali U+A900 to U+A909
kawi U+11F50 to U+11F59
khmr U+17E0 to U+17E9
knda U+0CE6 to U+0CEF
lana U+1A80 to U+1A89
lanatham U+1A90 to U+1A99
laoo U+0ED0 to U+0ED9
latn U+0030 to U+0039
lepc U+1C40 to U+1C49
limb U+1946 to U+194F
mathbold U+1D7CE to U+1D7D7
mathdbl U+1D7D8 to U+1D7E1
mathmono U+1D7F6 to U+1D7FF
mathsanb U+1D7EC to U+1D7F5
mathsans U+1D7E2 to U+1D7EB
mlym U+0D66 to U+0D6F
modi U+11650 to U+11659
mong U+1810 to U+1819
mroo U+16A60 to U+16A69
mtei U+ABF0 to U+ABF9
mymr U+1040 to U+1049
mymrshan U+1090 to U+1099
mymrtlng U+A9F0 to U+A9F9
nagm U+1E4F0 to U+1E4F9
newa U+11450 to U+11459
nkoo U+07C0 to U+07C9
olck U+1C50 to U+1C59
orya U+0B66 to U+0B6F
osma U+104A0 to U+104A9
rohg U+10D30 to U+10D39
saur U+A8D0 to U+A8D9
segment U+1FBF0 to U+1FBF9
shrd U+111D0 to U+111D9
sind U+112F0 to U+112F9
sinh U+0DE6 to U+0DEF
sora U+110F0 to U+110F9
sund U+1BB0 to U+1BB9
takr U+116C0 to U+116C9
talu U+19D0 to U+19D9
tamldec U+0BE6 to U+0BEF
telu U+0C66 to U+0C6F
thai U+0E50 to U+0E59
tibt U+0F20 to U+0F29
tirh U+114D0 to U+114D9
tnsa U+16AC0 to U+16AC9
vaii U+A620 to U+A629
wara U+118E0 to U+118E9
wcho U+1E2F0 to U+1E2F9
Note 1
The computations rely on String values and locations within numeric strings that are dependent upon the implementation and the effective locale of numberFormat ("ILD") or upon the implementation, the effective locale, and the numbering system of numberFormat ("ILND"). The ILD and ILND Strings mentioned, other than those for currency names, must not contain any code points in the General Category "Number, decimal digit" as specified by the Unicode Standard.
Note 2
It is recommended that implementations use the locale provided by the Common Locale Data Repository (available at https://cldr.unicode.org/).

15.5.6 FormatNumeric ( numberFormat, x )

The abstract operation FormatNumeric takes arguments numberFormat (an Intl.NumberFormat) and x (an Intl mathematical value) and returns a String. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let parts be PartitionNumberPattern(numberFormat, x).
  2. Let result be the empty String.
  3. For each Record { [[Type]], [[Value]] } part of parts, do
    1. Set result to the string-concatenation of result and part.[[Value]].
  4. Return result.

15.5.7 FormatNumericToParts ( numberFormat, x )

The abstract operation FormatNumericToParts takes arguments numberFormat (an Intl.NumberFormat) and x (an Intl mathematical value) and returns an Array. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let parts be PartitionNumberPattern(numberFormat, x).
  2. Let result be ! ArrayCreate(0).
  3. Let n be 0.
  4. For each Record { [[Type]], [[Value]] } part of parts, do
    1. Let O be OrdinaryObjectCreate(%Object.prototype%).
    2. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(O, "type", part.[[Type]]).
    3. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(O, "value", part.[[Value]]).
    4. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(result, ! ToString(𝔽(n)), O).
    5. Increment n by 1.
  5. Return result.

15.5.8 ToRawPrecision ( x, minPrecision, maxPrecision, unsignedRoundingMode )

The abstract operation ToRawPrecision takes arguments x (non-negative mathematical value), minPrecision (an integer in the inclusive interval from 1 to 21), maxPrecision (an integer in the inclusive interval from 1 to 21), and unsignedRoundingMode (a specification type from the Unsigned Rounding Mode column of Table 15, or undefined) and returns a Record with fields [[FormattedString]] (a String), [[RoundedNumber]] (a mathematical value), [[IntegerDigitsCount]] (an integer), and [[RoundingMagnitude]] (an integer).

It involves solving the following equation, which returns a valid mathematical value given integer inputs:

ToRawPrecisionFn(n, e, p) = n × 10ep+1
where 10p–1n < 10p

It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let p be maxPrecision.
  2. If x = 0, then
    1. Let m be the String consisting of p occurrences of the code unit 0x0030 (DIGIT ZERO).
    2. Let e be 0.
    3. Let xFinal be 0.
  3. Else,
    1. Let n1 and e1 each be an integer and r1 a mathematical value, with r1 = ToRawPrecisionFn(n1, e1, p), such that r1x and r1 is maximized.
    2. Let n2 and e2 each be an integer and r2 a mathematical value, with r2 = ToRawPrecisionFn(n2, e2, p), such that r2x and r2 is minimized.
    3. Let r be ApplyUnsignedRoundingMode(x, r1, r2, unsignedRoundingMode).
    4. If r is r1, then
      1. Let n be n1.
      2. Let e be e1.
      3. Let xFinal be r1.
    5. Else,
      1. Let n be n2.
      2. Let e be e2.
      3. Let xFinal be r2.
    6. Let m be the String consisting of the digits of the decimal representation of n (in order, with no leading zeroes).
  4. If e ≥ (p - 1), then
    1. Set m to the string-concatenation of m and e - p + 1 occurrences of the code unit 0x0030 (DIGIT ZERO).
    2. Let int be e + 1.
  5. Else if e ≥ 0, then
    1. Set m to the string-concatenation of the first e + 1 code units of m, the code unit 0x002E (FULL STOP), and the remaining p - (e + 1) code units of m.
    2. Let int be e + 1.
  6. Else,
    1. Assert: e < 0.
    2. Set m to the string-concatenation of "0.", -(e + 1) occurrences of the code unit 0x0030 (DIGIT ZERO), and m.
    3. Let int be 1.
  7. If m contains the code unit 0x002E (FULL STOP) and maxPrecision > minPrecision, then
    1. Let cut be maxPrecision - minPrecision.
    2. Repeat, while cut > 0 and the last code unit of m is 0x0030 (DIGIT ZERO),
      1. Remove the last code unit from m.
      2. Set cut to cut - 1.
    3. If the last code unit of m is 0x002E (FULL STOP), then
      1. Remove the last code unit from m.
  8. Return the Record { [[FormattedString]]: m, [[RoundedNumber]]: xFinal, [[IntegerDigitsCount]]: int, [[RoundingMagnitude]]: ep+1 }.

15.5.9 ToRawFixed ( x, minFraction, maxFraction, roundingIncrement, unsignedRoundingMode )

The abstract operation ToRawFixed takes arguments x (non-negative mathematical value), minFraction (an integer in the inclusive interval from 0 to 100), maxFraction (an integer in the inclusive interval from 0 to 100), roundingIncrement (an integer), and unsignedRoundingMode (a specification type from the Unsigned Rounding Mode column of Table 15, or undefined) and returns a Record with fields [[FormattedString]] (a String), [[RoundedNumber]] (a mathematical value), [[IntegerDigitsCount]] (an integer), and [[RoundingMagnitude]] (an integer).

It involves solving the following equation, which returns a valid mathematical value given integer inputs:

ToRawFixedFn(n, f) = n × 10f

It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let f be maxFraction.
  2. Let n1 be an integer and r1 a mathematical value, with r1 = ToRawFixedFn(n1, f), such that n1 modulo roundingIncrement = 0, r1x, and r1 is maximized.
  3. Let n2 be an integer and r2 a mathematical value, with r2 = ToRawFixedFn(n2, f), such that n2 modulo roundingIncrement = 0, r2x, and r2 is minimized.
  4. Let r be ApplyUnsignedRoundingMode(x, r1, r2, unsignedRoundingMode).
  5. If r is r1, then
    1. Let n be n1.
    2. Let xFinal be r1.
  6. Else,
    1. Let n be n2.
    2. Let xFinal be r2.
  7. If n = 0, let m be "0". Otherwise, let m be the String consisting of the digits of the decimal representation of n (in order, with no leading zeroes).
  8. If f ≠ 0, then
    1. Let k be the length of m.
    2. If kf, then
      1. Let z be the String value consisting of f + 1 - k occurrences of the code unit 0x0030 (DIGIT ZERO).
      2. Set m to the string-concatenation of z and m.
      3. Set k to f + 1.
    3. Let a be the first k - f code units of m, and let b be the remaining f code units of m.
    4. Set m to the string-concatenation of a, ".", and b.
    5. Let int be the length of a.
  9. Else,
    1. Let int be the length of m.
  10. Let cut be maxFraction - minFraction.
  11. Repeat, while cut > 0 and the last code unit of m is 0x0030 (DIGIT ZERO),
    1. Remove the last code unit from m.
    2. Set cut to cut - 1.
  12. If the last code unit of m is 0x002E (FULL STOP), then
    1. Remove the last code unit from m.
  13. Return the Record { [[FormattedString]]: m, [[RoundedNumber]]: xFinal, [[IntegerDigitsCount]]: int, [[RoundingMagnitude]]: –f }.

15.5.10 UnwrapNumberFormat ( nf )

The abstract operation UnwrapNumberFormat takes argument nf (an ECMAScript language value) and returns either a normal completion containing an ECMAScript language value or a throw completion. It returns the NumberFormat instance of its input object, which is either the value itself or a value associated with it by %Intl.NumberFormat% according to the normative optional constructor mode of 4.3 Note 1. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If Type(nf) is not Object, throw a TypeError exception.
  2. If nf does not have an [[InitializedNumberFormat]] internal slot and ? OrdinaryHasInstance(%Intl.NumberFormat%, nf) is true, then
    1. Return ? Get(nf, %Intl%.[[FallbackSymbol]]).
  3. Return nf.

15.5.11 GetNumberFormatPattern ( numberFormat, x )

The abstract operation GetNumberFormatPattern takes arguments numberFormat (an Intl.NumberFormat) and x (an Intl mathematical value) and returns a String. It considers the resolved unit-related options in the number format object along with the final scaled and rounded number being formatted (an Intl mathematical value) and returns a pattern, a String value as described in 15.2.3. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let resolvedLocaleData be numberFormat.[[LocaleData]].
  2. Let patterns be resolvedLocaleData.[[patterns]].
  3. Assert: patterns is a Record (see 15.2.3).
  4. Let style be numberFormat.[[Style]].
  5. If style is "percent", then
    1. Set patterns to patterns.[[percent]].
  6. Else if style is "unit", then
    1. Let unit be numberFormat.[[Unit]].
    2. Let unitDisplay be numberFormat.[[UnitDisplay]].
    3. Set patterns to patterns.[[unit]].
    4. If patterns doesn't have a field [[<unit>]], then
      1. Set unit to "fallback".
    5. Set patterns to patterns.[[<unit>]].
    6. Set patterns to patterns.[[<unitDisplay>]].
  7. Else if style is "currency", then
    1. Let currency be numberFormat.[[Currency]].
    2. Let currencyDisplay be numberFormat.[[CurrencyDisplay]].
    3. Let currencySign be numberFormat.[[CurrencySign]].
    4. Set patterns to patterns.[[currency]].
    5. If patterns doesn't have a field [[<currency>]], then
      1. Set currency to "fallback".
    6. Set patterns to patterns.[[<currency>]].
    7. Set patterns to patterns.[[<currencyDisplay>]].
    8. Set patterns to patterns.[[<currencySign>]].
  8. Else,
    1. Assert: style is "decimal".
    2. Set patterns to patterns.[[decimal]].
  9. If x is negative-infinity, then
    1. Let category be negative-non-zero.
  10. Else if x is negative-zero, then
    1. Let category be negative-zero.
  11. Else if x is not-a-number, then
    1. Let category be positive-zero.
  12. Else if x is positive-infinity, then
    1. Let category be positive-non-zero.
  13. Else,
    1. Assert: x is a mathematical value.
    2. If x < 0, then
      1. Let category be negative-non-zero.
    3. Else if x > 0, then
      1. Let category be positive-non-zero.
    4. Else,
      1. Let category be positive-zero.
  14. Let signDisplay be numberFormat.[[SignDisplay]].
  15. If signDisplay is "never", then
    1. Let pattern be patterns.[[zeroPattern]].
  16. Else if signDisplay is "auto", then
    1. If category is positive-non-zero or positive-zero, then
      1. Let pattern be patterns.[[zeroPattern]].
    2. Else,
      1. Let pattern be patterns.[[negativePattern]].
  17. Else if signDisplay is "always", then
    1. If category is positive-non-zero or positive-zero, then
      1. Let pattern be patterns.[[positivePattern]].
    2. Else,
      1. Let pattern be patterns.[[negativePattern]].
  18. Else if signDisplay is "exceptZero", then
    1. If category is positive-zero or negative-zero, then
      1. Let pattern be patterns.[[zeroPattern]].
    2. Else if category is positive-non-zero, then
      1. Let pattern be patterns.[[positivePattern]].
    3. Else,
      1. Let pattern be patterns.[[negativePattern]].
  19. Else,
    1. Assert: signDisplay is "negative".
    2. If category is negative-non-zero, then
      1. Let pattern be patterns.[[negativePattern]].
    3. Else,
      1. Let pattern be patterns.[[zeroPattern]].
  20. Return pattern.

15.5.12 GetNotationSubPattern ( numberFormat, exponent )

The abstract operation GetNotationSubPattern takes arguments numberFormat (an Intl.NumberFormat) and exponent (an integer) and returns a String. It considers the resolved notation and exponent, and returns a String value for the notation sub pattern as described in 15.2.3. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let resolvedLocaleData be numberFormat.[[LocaleData]].
  2. Let notationSubPatterns be resolvedLocaleData.[[notationSubPatterns]].
  3. Assert: notationSubPatterns is a Record (see 15.2.3).
  4. Let notation be numberFormat.[[Notation]].
  5. If notation is "scientific" or notation is "engineering", then
    1. Return notationSubPatterns.[[scientific]].
  6. Else if exponent is not 0, then
    1. Assert: notation is "compact".
    2. Let compactDisplay be numberFormat.[[CompactDisplay]].
    3. Let compactPatterns be notationSubPatterns.[[compact]].[[<compactDisplay>]].
    4. Return compactPatterns.[[<exponent>]].
  7. Else,
    1. Return "{number}".

15.5.13 ComputeExponent ( numberFormat, x )

The abstract operation ComputeExponent takes arguments numberFormat (an Intl.NumberFormat) and x (a mathematical value) and returns an integer. It computes an exponent (power of ten) by which to scale x according to the number formatting settings. It handles cases such as 999 rounding up to 1000, requiring a different exponent. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If x = 0, then
    1. Return 0.
  2. If x < 0, then
    1. Let x = -x.
  3. Let magnitude be the base 10 logarithm of x rounded down to the nearest integer.
  4. Let exponent be ComputeExponentForMagnitude(numberFormat, magnitude).
  5. Let x be x × 10-exponent.
  6. Let formatNumberResult be FormatNumericToString(numberFormat, x).
  7. If formatNumberResult.[[RoundedNumber]] = 0, then
    1. Return exponent.
  8. Let newMagnitude be the base 10 logarithm of formatNumberResult.[[RoundedNumber]] rounded down to the nearest integer.
  9. If newMagnitude is magnitude - exponent, then
    1. Return exponent.
  10. Return ComputeExponentForMagnitude(numberFormat, magnitude + 1).

15.5.14 ComputeExponentForMagnitude ( numberFormat, magnitude )

The abstract operation ComputeExponentForMagnitude takes arguments numberFormat (an Intl.NumberFormat) and magnitude (an integer) and returns an integer. It computes an exponent by which to scale a number of the given magnitude (power of ten of the most significant digit) according to the locale and the desired notation (scientific, engineering, or compact). It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let notation be numberFormat.[[Notation]].
  2. If notation is "standard", then
    1. Return 0.
  3. Else if notation is "scientific", then
    1. Return magnitude.
  4. Else if notation is "engineering", then
    1. Let thousands be the greatest integer that is not greater than magnitude / 3.
    2. Return thousands × 3.
  5. Else,
    1. Assert: notation is "compact".
    2. Let exponent be an implementation- and locale-dependent (ILD) integer by which to scale a number of the given magnitude in compact notation for the current locale.
    3. Return exponent.

15.5.15 Runtime Semantics: StringIntlMV

The syntax-directed operation StringIntlMV takes no arguments.

Note

The conversion of a StringNumericLiteral to a Number value is similar overall to the determination of the NumericValue of a NumericLiteral (see 12.9.3), but some of the details are different.

It is defined piecewise over the following productions:

StringNumericLiteral ::: StrWhiteSpaceopt
  1. Return 0.
StringNumericLiteral ::: StrWhiteSpaceopt StrNumericLiteral StrWhiteSpaceopt
  1. Return StringIntlMV of StrNumericLiteral.
StrNumericLiteral ::: NonDecimalIntegerLiteral
  1. Return MV of NonDecimalIntegerLiteral.
StrDecimalLiteral ::: - StrUnsignedDecimalLiteral
  1. Let a be StringIntlMV of StrUnsignedDecimalLiteral.
  2. If a is 0, return negative-zero.
  3. If a is positive-infinity, return negative-infinity.
  4. Return -a.
StrUnsignedDecimalLiteral ::: Infinity
  1. Return positive-infinity.
StrUnsignedDecimalLiteral ::: DecimalDigits . DecimalDigitsopt ExponentPartopt
  1. Let a be MV of the first DecimalDigits.
  2. If the second DecimalDigits is present, then
    1. Let b be MV of the second DecimalDigits.
    2. Let n be the number of code points in the second DecimalDigits.
  3. Else,
    1. Let b be 0.
    2. Let n be 0.
  4. If ExponentPart is present, let e be MV of ExponentPart. Otherwise, let e be 0.
  5. Return (a + (b × 10-n)) × 10e.
StrUnsignedDecimalLiteral ::: . DecimalDigits ExponentPartopt
  1. Let b be MV of DecimalDigits.
  2. If ExponentPart is present, let e be MV of ExponentPart. Otherwise, let e be 0.
  3. Let n be the number of code points in DecimalDigits.
  4. Return b × 10e - n.
StrUnsignedDecimalLiteral ::: DecimalDigits ExponentPartopt
  1. Let a be MV of DecimalDigits.
  2. If ExponentPart is present, let e be MV of ExponentPart. Otherwise, let e be 0.
  3. Return a × 10e.

15.5.16 ToIntlMathematicalValue ( value )

The abstract operation ToIntlMathematicalValue takes argument value (an ECMAScript language value) and returns either a normal completion containing an Intl mathematical value or a throw completion. It returns value converted to an Intl mathematical value, which is a mathematical value together with positive-infinity, negative-infinity, not-a-number, and negative-zero. This abstract operation is similar to 7.1.3, but a mathematical value can be returned instead of a Number or BigInt, so that exact decimal values can be represented. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let primValue be ? ToPrimitive(value, number).
  2. If Type(primValue) is BigInt, return (primValue).
  3. If Type(primValue) is String, then
    1. Let str be primValue.
  4. Else,
    1. Let x be ? ToNumber(primValue).
    2. If x is -0𝔽, return negative-zero.
    3. Let str be Number::toString(x, 10).
  5. Let text be StringToCodePoints(str).
  6. Let literal be ParseText(text, StringNumericLiteral).
  7. If literal is a List of errors, return not-a-number.
  8. Let intlMV be the StringIntlMV of literal.
  9. If intlMV is a mathematical value, then
    1. Let rounded be RoundMVResult(abs(intlMV)).
    2. If rounded is +∞𝔽 and intlMV < 0, return negative-infinity.
    3. If rounded is +∞𝔽, return positive-infinity.
    4. If rounded is +0𝔽 and intlMV < 0, return negative-zero.
    5. If rounded is +0𝔽, return 0.
  10. Return intlMV.

15.5.17 GetUnsignedRoundingMode ( roundingMode, sign )

The abstract operation GetUnsignedRoundingMode takes arguments roundingMode (a String) and sign (negative or positive) and returns a specification type from the Unsigned Rounding Mode column of Table 15. It returns the rounding mode that should be applied to the absolute value of a number to produce the same result as if roundingMode, one of the String values in the Identifier column of Table 13, were applied to the signed value of the number (negative if sign is negative, or positive otherwise). It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Return the specification type in the Unsigned Rounding Mode column of Table 15 for the row where the value in the Identifier column is roundingMode and the value in the Sign column is sign.
Table 15: Conversion from rounding mode to unsigned rounding mode
Identifier Sign Unsigned Rounding Mode
"ceil" positive infinity
negative zero
"floor" positive zero
negative infinity
"expand" positive infinity
negative infinity
"trunc" positive zero
negative zero
"halfCeil" positive half-infinity
negative half-zero
"halfFloor" positive half-zero
negative half-infinity
"halfExpand" positive half-infinity
negative half-infinity
"halfTrunc" positive half-zero
negative half-zero
"halfEven" positive half-even
negative half-even

15.5.18 ApplyUnsignedRoundingMode ( x, r1, r2, unsignedRoundingMode )

The abstract operation ApplyUnsignedRoundingMode takes arguments x (a mathematical value), r1 (a mathematical value), r2 (a mathematical value), and unsignedRoundingMode (a specification type from the Unsigned Rounding Mode column of Table 15, or undefined) and returns a mathematical value. It considers x, bracketed below by r1 and above by r2, and returns either r1 or r2 according to unsignedRoundingMode. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If x is equal to r1, return r1.
  2. Assert: r1 < x < r2.
  3. Assert: unsignedRoundingMode is not undefined.
  4. If unsignedRoundingMode is zero, return r1.
  5. If unsignedRoundingMode is infinity, return r2.
  6. Let d1 be xr1.
  7. Let d2 be r2x.
  8. If d1 < d2, return r1.
  9. If d2 < d1, return r2.
  10. Assert: d1 is equal to d2.
  11. If unsignedRoundingMode is half-zero, return r1.
  12. If unsignedRoundingMode is half-infinity, return r2.
  13. Assert: unsignedRoundingMode is half-even.
  14. Let cardinality be (r1 / (r2r1)) modulo 2.
  15. If cardinality is 0, return r1.
  16. Return r2.

15.5.19 PartitionNumberRangePattern ( numberFormat, x, y )

The abstract operation PartitionNumberRangePattern takes arguments numberFormat (an Intl.NumberFormat), x (an Intl mathematical value), and y (an Intl mathematical value) and returns either a normal completion containing a List of Records with fields [[Type]] (a String), [[Value]] (a String), and [[Source]] (a String), or a throw completion. It creates the parts for a localized number range according to x, y, and the formatting options of numberFormat. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If x is not-a-number or y is not-a-number, throw a RangeError exception.
  2. Let result be a new empty List.
  3. Let xResult be PartitionNumberPattern(numberFormat, x).
  4. Let yResult be PartitionNumberPattern(numberFormat, y).
  5. If FormatNumeric(numberFormat, x) is equal to FormatNumeric(numberFormat, y), then
    1. Let appxResult be FormatApproximately(numberFormat, xResult).
    2. For each element r of appxResult, do
      1. Set r.[[Source]] to "shared".
    3. Return appxResult.
  6. For each element r of xResult, do
    1. Append the Record { [[Type]]: r.[[Type]], [[Value]]: r.[[Value]], [[Source]]: "startRange" } to result.
  7. Let rangeSeparator be an ILND String value used to separate two numbers.
  8. Append the Record { [[Type]]: "literal", [[Value]]: rangeSeparator, [[Source]]: "shared" } to result.
  9. For each element r of yResult, do
    1. Append the Record { [[Type]]: r.[[Type]], [[Value]]: r.[[Value]], [[Source]]: "endRange" } to result.
  10. Return CollapseNumberRange(result).

15.5.20 FormatApproximately ( numberFormat, result )

The abstract operation FormatApproximately takes arguments numberFormat (an Intl.NumberFormat) and result (a List of Records with fields [[Type]] (a String) and [[Value]] (a String)) and returns a List of Records with fields [[Type]] (a String) and [[Value]] (a String). It modifies result, which must be a List of Record values as described in PartitionNumberPattern, by adding a new Record for the approximately sign, which may depend on numberFormat. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let approximatelySign be an ILND String value used to signify that a number is approximate.
  2. If approximatelySign is not empty, insert a new Record { [[Type]]: "approximatelySign", [[Value]]: approximatelySign } at an ILND index in result. For example, if numberFormat has [[Locale]] "en-US" and [[NumberingSystem]] "latn" and [[Style]] "decimal", the new Record might be inserted before the first element of result.
  3. Return result.

15.5.21 CollapseNumberRange ( result )

The implementation-defined abstract operation CollapseNumberRange takes argument result (a List of Records with fields [[Type]] (a String), [[Value]] (a String), and [[Source]] (a String)) and returns a List of Records with fields [[Type]] (a String), [[Value]] (a String), and [[Source]] (a String). It modifies result (which must be a List of Records as constructed within PartitionNumberRangePattern) by removing redundant information and resolving internal inconsistency, and returns the resulting List. The algorithm is implementation dependent, but must not introduce ambiguity that would cause the result of Intl.NumberFormat.prototype.formatRange ( start, end ) with arguments List « start1, end1 » to equal the result with arguments List « start2, end2 » if the results for those same arguments Lists would not be equal with a trivial implementation of CollapseNumberRange that always returns result unmodified.

For example, an implementation may remove the Record representing a currency symbol after a range separator to convert a results List representing "$3–$5" into one representing "$3–5".

An implementation may also modify Record [[Value]] fields for grammatical correctness; for example, converting a results List representing "0.5 miles–1 mile" into one representing "0.5–1 miles".

Returning result unmodified is guaranteed to be a correct implementation of CollapseNumberRange.

15.5.22 FormatNumericRange ( numberFormat, x, y )

The abstract operation FormatNumericRange takes arguments numberFormat (an Intl.NumberFormat), x (an Intl mathematical value), and y (an Intl mathematical value) and returns either a normal completion containing a String or a throw completion. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let parts be ? PartitionNumberRangePattern(numberFormat, x, y).
  2. Let result be the empty String.
  3. For each element part of parts, do
    1. Set result to the string-concatenation of result and part.[[Value]].
  4. Return result.

15.5.23 FormatNumericRangeToParts ( numberFormat, x, y )

The abstract operation FormatNumericRangeToParts takes arguments numberFormat (an Intl.NumberFormat), x (an Intl mathematical value), and y (an Intl mathematical value) and returns either a normal completion containing an Array or a throw completion. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let parts be ? PartitionNumberRangePattern(numberFormat, x, y).
  2. Let result be ! ArrayCreate(0).
  3. Let n be 0.
  4. For each element part of parts, do
    1. Let O be OrdinaryObjectCreate(%Object.prototype%).
    2. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(O, "type", part.[[Type]]).
    3. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(O, "value", part.[[Value]]).
    4. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(O, "source", part.[[Source]]).
    5. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(result, ! ToString(𝔽(n)), O).
    6. Increment n by 1.
  5. Return result.

16 PluralRules Objects

16.1 The Intl.PluralRules Constructor

The PluralRules constructor is the %Intl.PluralRules% intrinsic object and a standard built-in property of the Intl object. Behaviour common to all service constructor properties of the Intl object is specified in 9.1.

16.1.1 Intl.PluralRules ( [ locales [ , options ] ] )

When the Intl.PluralRules function is called with optional arguments locales and options, the following steps are taken:

  1. If NewTarget is undefined, throw a TypeError exception.
  2. Let pluralRules be ? OrdinaryCreateFromConstructor(NewTarget, "%Intl.PluralRules.prototype%", « [[InitializedPluralRules]], [[Locale]], [[Type]], [[MinimumIntegerDigits]], [[MinimumFractionDigits]], [[MaximumFractionDigits]], [[MinimumSignificantDigits]], [[MaximumSignificantDigits]], [[RoundingType]], [[RoundingIncrement]], [[RoundingMode]], [[ComputedRoundingPriority]], [[TrailingZeroDisplay]] »).
  3. Return ? InitializePluralRules(pluralRules, locales, options).

16.1.2 InitializePluralRules ( pluralRules, locales, options )

The abstract operation InitializePluralRules takes arguments pluralRules (an Intl.PluralRules), locales (an ECMAScript language value), and options (an ECMAScript language value) and returns either a normal completion containing pluralRules or a throw completion. It initializes pluralRules as a PluralRules object. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let requestedLocales be ? CanonicalizeLocaleList(locales).
  2. Set options to ? CoerceOptionsToObject(options).
  3. Let opt be a new Record.
  4. Let matcher be ? GetOption(options, "localeMatcher", string, « "lookup", "best fit" », "best fit").
  5. Set opt.[[localeMatcher]] to matcher.
  6. Let t be ? GetOption(options, "type", string, « "cardinal", "ordinal" », "cardinal").
  7. Set pluralRules.[[Type]] to t.
  8. Perform ? SetNumberFormatDigitOptions(pluralRules, options, 0, 3, "standard").
  9. Let r be ResolveLocale(%Intl.PluralRules%.[[AvailableLocales]], requestedLocales, opt, %Intl.PluralRules%.[[RelevantExtensionKeys]], %Intl.PluralRules%.[[LocaleData]]).
  10. Set pluralRules.[[Locale]] to r.[[Locale]].
  11. Return pluralRules.

16.2 Properties of the Intl.PluralRules Constructor

The Intl.PluralRules constructor has the following properties:

16.2.1 Intl.PluralRules.prototype

The value of Intl.PluralRules.prototype is %Intl.PluralRules.prototype%.

This property has the attributes { [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: false }.

16.2.2 Intl.PluralRules.supportedLocalesOf ( locales [ , options ] )

When the supportedLocalesOf method is called with arguments locales and options, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let availableLocales be %Intl.PluralRules%.[[AvailableLocales]].
  2. Let requestedLocales be ? CanonicalizeLocaleList(locales).
  3. Return ? SupportedLocales(availableLocales, requestedLocales, options).

16.2.3 Internal slots

The value of the [[AvailableLocales]] internal slot is implementation-defined within the constraints described in 9.1.

The value of the [[RelevantExtensionKeys]] internal slot is « ».

Note 1
Unicode Technical Standard #35 Part 1 Core, Section 3.6.1 Key and Type Definitions describes no locale extension keys that are relevant to the pluralization process.

The value of the [[LocaleData]] internal slot is implementation-defined within the constraints described in 9.1.

Note 2
It is recommended that implementations use the locale data provided by the Common Locale Data Repository (available at https://cldr.unicode.org/).

16.3 Properties of the Intl.PluralRules Prototype Object

The Intl.PluralRules prototype object is itself an ordinary object. %Intl.PluralRules.prototype% is not an Intl.PluralRules instance and does not have an [[InitializedPluralRules]] internal slot or any of the other internal slots of Intl.PluralRules instance objects.

16.3.1 Intl.PluralRules.prototype.constructor

The initial value of Intl.PluralRules.prototype.constructor is %Intl.PluralRules%.

16.3.2 Intl.PluralRules.prototype [ @@toStringTag ]

The initial value of the @@toStringTag property is the String value "Intl.PluralRules".

This property has the attributes { [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: true }.

16.3.3 Intl.PluralRules.prototype.select ( value )

When the select method is called with an argument value, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let pr be the this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(pr, [[InitializedPluralRules]]).
  3. Let n be ? ToNumber(value).
  4. Return ResolvePlural(pr, n).[[PluralCategory]].

16.3.4 Intl.PluralRules.prototype.selectRange ( start, end )

When the selectRange method is called with arguments start and end, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let pr be the this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(pr, [[InitializedPluralRules]]).
  3. If start is undefined or end is undefined, throw a TypeError exception.
  4. Let x be ? ToNumber(start).
  5. Let y be ? ToNumber(end).
  6. Return ? ResolvePluralRange(pr, x, y).

16.3.5 Intl.PluralRules.prototype.resolvedOptions ( )

This function provides access to the locale and options computed during initialization of the object.

  1. Let pr be the this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(pr, [[InitializedPluralRules]]).
  3. Let options be OrdinaryObjectCreate(%Object.prototype%).
  4. Let pluralCategories be a List of Strings containing all possible results of PluralRuleSelect for the selected locale pr.[[Locale]].
  5. For each row of Table 16, except the header row, in table order, do
    1. Let p be the Property value of the current row.
    2. If p is "pluralCategories", then
      1. Let v be CreateArrayFromList(pluralCategories).
    3. Else,
      1. Let v be the value of pr's internal slot whose name is the Internal Slot value of the current row.
    4. If v is not undefined, then
      1. If there is a Conversion value in the current row, then
        1. Assert: The Conversion value of the current row is number.
        2. Set v to 𝔽(v).
      2. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(options, p, v).
  6. Return options.
Table 16: Resolved Options of PluralRules Instances
Internal Slot Property Conversion
[[Locale]] "locale"
[[Type]] "type"
[[MinimumIntegerDigits]] "minimumIntegerDigits" number
[[MinimumFractionDigits]] "minimumFractionDigits" number
[[MaximumFractionDigits]] "maximumFractionDigits" number
[[MinimumSignificantDigits]] "minimumSignificantDigits" number
[[MaximumSignificantDigits]] "maximumSignificantDigits" number
"pluralCategories"
[[RoundingIncrement]] "roundingIncrement" number
[[RoundingMode]] "roundingMode"
[[ComputedRoundingPriority]] "roundingPriority"
[[TrailingZeroDisplay]] "trailingZeroDisplay"

16.4 Properties of Intl.PluralRules Instances

Intl.PluralRules instances are ordinary objects that inherit properties from %Intl.PluralRules.prototype%.

Intl.PluralRules instances have an [[InitializedPluralRules]] internal slot.

Intl.PluralRules instances also have several internal slots that are computed by the constructor:

  • [[Locale]] is a String value with the language tag of the locale whose localization is used by the plural rules.
  • [[Type]] is one of the String values "cardinal" or "ordinal", identifying the plural rules used.
  • [[MinimumIntegerDigits]] is a non-negative integer indicating the minimum integer digits to be used.
  • [[MinimumFractionDigits]] and [[MaximumFractionDigits]] are non-negative integers indicating the minimum and maximum fraction digits to be used. Numbers will be rounded or padded with trailing zeroes if necessary.
  • [[MinimumSignificantDigits]] and [[MaximumSignificantDigits]] are positive integers indicating the minimum and maximum fraction digits to be used. Either none or both of these properties are present; if they are, they override minimum and maximum integer and fraction digits.
  • [[RoundingType]] is one of the values fraction-digits, significant-digits, more-precision, or less-precision, indicating which rounding strategy to use, as discussed in 15.4.
  • [[ComputedRoundingPriority]] is one of the String values "auto", "morePrecision", or "lessPrecision". It is only used in 16.3.5 to convert [[RoundingType]] back to a valid "roundingPriority" option.
  • [[RoundingIncrement]] is an integer that evenly divides 10, 100, 1000, or 10000 into tenths, fifths, quarters, or halves. It indicates the increment at which rounding should take place relative to the calculated rounding magnitude. For example, if [[MaximumFractionDigits]] is 2 and [[RoundingIncrement]] is 5, then formatted numbers are rounded to the nearest 0.05 ("nickel rounding").
  • [[RoundingMode]] is one of the String values in the Identifier column of Table 13, specifying which rounding mode to use.
  • [[TrailingZeroDisplay]] is one of the String values "auto" or "stripIfInteger", indicating whether to strip trailing zeros if the formatted number is an integer (i.e., has no non-zero fraction digit).

16.5 Abstract Operations for PluralRules Objects

16.5.1 GetOperands ( s )

The abstract operation GetOperands takes argument s (a decimal String) and returns a Plural Rules Operands Record. It extracts numeric features from s that correspond with the operands of Unicode Technical Standard #35 Part 3 Numbers, Section 5.1.1 Operands. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let n be ! ToNumber(s).
  2. Assert: n is finite.
  3. Let dp be StringIndexOf(s, ".", 0).
  4. If dp = -1, then
    1. Let intPart be n.
    2. Let fracSlice be "".
  5. Else,
    1. Let intPart be the substring of s from 0 to dp.
    2. Let fracSlice be the substring of s from dp + 1.
  6. Let i be abs(! ToNumber(intPart)).
  7. Let fracDigitCount be the length of fracSlice.
  8. Let f be ! ToNumber(fracSlice).
  9. Let significantFracSlice be the value of fracSlice stripped of trailing "0".
  10. Let significantFracDigitCount be the length of significantFracSlice.
  11. Let significantFrac be ! ToNumber(significantFracSlice).
  12. Return a new Plural Rules Operands Record { [[Number]]: abs(n), [[IntegerDigits]]: i, [[FractionDigits]]: f, [[NumberOfFractionDigits]]: fracDigitCount, [[FractionDigitsWithoutTrailing]]: significantFrac, [[NumberOfFractionDigitsWithoutTrailing]]: significantFracDigitCount }.

16.5.2 Plural Rules Operands Records

Each Plural Rules Operands Record has the fields defined in Table 17.

Table 17: Plural Rules Operands Record Fields
Field Name Value Type UTS #35 Operand Description
[[Number]] Number n Absolute value of the source number
[[IntegerDigits]] Number i Integer part of [[Number]].
[[FractionDigits]] Number f Visible fraction digits in [[Number]], with trailing zeroes, as an integer having [[NumberOfFractionDigits]] digits.
[[NumberOfFractionDigits]] Number v Number of visible fraction digits in [[Number]], with trailing zeroes.
[[FractionDigitsWithoutTrailing]] Number t Visible fraction digits in [[Number]], without trailing zeroes, as an integer having [[NumberOfFractionDigitsWithoutTrailing]] digits.
[[NumberOfFractionDigitsWithoutTrailing]] Number w Number of visible fraction digits in [[Number]], without trailing zeroes.

16.5.3 PluralRuleSelect ( locale, type, n, operands )

The implementation-defined abstract operation PluralRuleSelect takes arguments locale (a String), type ("cardinal" or "ordinal"), n (a finite Number), and operands (a Plural Rules Operands Record derived from formatting n) and returns "zero", "one", "two", "few", "many", or "other". The returned String best categorizes the operands representation of n according to the rules for locale and type.

16.5.4 ResolvePlural ( pluralRules, n )

The abstract operation ResolvePlural takes arguments pluralRules (an Intl.PluralRules) and n (a Number) and returns a Record with fields [[PluralCategory]] ("zero", "one", "two", "few", "many", or "other") and [[FormattedString]] (a String). The returned Record contains two string-valued fields describing n according to the effective locale and the options of pluralRules: [[PluralCategory]] characterizing its plural category, and [[FormattedString]] containing its formatted representation. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If n is not a finite Number, then
    1. Let s be ! ToString(n).
    2. Return the Record { [[PluralCategory]]: "other", [[FormattedString]]: s }.
  2. Let locale be pluralRules.[[Locale]].
  3. Let type be pluralRules.[[Type]].
  4. Let res be FormatNumericToString(pluralRules, (n)).
  5. Let s be res.[[FormattedString]].
  6. Let operands be GetOperands(s).
  7. Let p be PluralRuleSelect(locale, type, n, operands).
  8. Return the Record { [[PluralCategory]]: p, [[FormattedString]]: s }.

16.5.5 PluralRuleSelectRange ( locale, type, xp, yp )

The implementation-defined abstract operation PluralRuleSelectRange takes arguments locale (a String), type ("cardinal" or "ordinal"), xp ("zero", "one", "two", "few", "many", or "other"), and yp ("zero", "one", "two", "few", "many", or "other") and returns "zero", "one", "two", "few", "many", or "other". It performs an implementation-dependent algorithm to map the plural category String values xp and yp, respectively characterizing the start and end of a range, to a resolved String value for the plural form of the range as a whole denoted by type for the corresponding locale, or the String value "other".

16.5.6 ResolvePluralRange ( pluralRules, x, y )

The abstract operation ResolvePluralRange takes arguments pluralRules (an Intl.PluralRules), x (a Number), and y (a Number) and returns either a normal completion containing either "zero", "one", "two", "few", "many", or "other", or a throw completion. The returned String value represents the plural form of the range starting from x and ending at y according to the effective locale and the options of pluralRules. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If x is NaN or y is NaN, throw a RangeError exception.
  2. Let xp be ResolvePlural(pluralRules, x).
  3. Let yp be ResolvePlural(pluralRules, y).
  4. If xp.[[FormattedString]] is yp.[[FormattedString]], then
    1. Return xp.[[PluralCategory]].
  5. Let locale be pluralRules.[[Locale]].
  6. Let type be pluralRules.[[Type]].
  7. Return PluralRuleSelectRange(locale, type, xp.[[PluralCategory]], yp.[[PluralCategory]]).

17 RelativeTimeFormat Objects

17.1 The Intl.RelativeTimeFormat Constructor

The RelativeTimeFormat constructor is the %Intl.RelativeTimeFormat% intrinsic object and a standard built-in property of the Intl object. Behaviour common to all service constructor properties of the Intl object is specified in 9.1.

17.1.1 Intl.RelativeTimeFormat ( [ locales [ , options ] ] )

When the Intl.RelativeTimeFormat function is called with optional arguments locales and options, the following steps are taken:

  1. If NewTarget is undefined, throw a TypeError exception.
  2. Let relativeTimeFormat be ? OrdinaryCreateFromConstructor(NewTarget, "%Intl.RelativeTimeFormat.prototype%", « [[InitializedRelativeTimeFormat]], [[Locale]], [[LocaleData]], [[Style]], [[Numeric]], [[NumberFormat]], [[NumberingSystem]], [[PluralRules]] »).
  3. Return ? InitializeRelativeTimeFormat(relativeTimeFormat, locales, options).

17.1.2 InitializeRelativeTimeFormat ( relativeTimeFormat, locales, options )

The abstract operation InitializeRelativeTimeFormat takes arguments relativeTimeFormat (an Intl.RelativeTimeFormat), locales (an ECMAScript language value), and options (an ECMAScript language value) and returns either a normal completion containing relativeTimeFormat or a throw completion. It initializes relativeTimeFormat as a RelativeTimeFormat object. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let requestedLocales be ? CanonicalizeLocaleList(locales).
  2. Set options to ? CoerceOptionsToObject(options).
  3. Let opt be a new Record.
  4. Let matcher be ? GetOption(options, "localeMatcher", string, « "lookup", "best fit" », "best fit").
  5. Set opt.[[LocaleMatcher]] to matcher.
  6. Let numberingSystem be ? GetOption(options, "numberingSystem", string, empty, undefined).
  7. If numberingSystem is not undefined, then
    1. If numberingSystem cannot be matched by the type Unicode locale nonterminal, throw a RangeError exception.
  8. Set opt.[[nu]] to numberingSystem.
  9. Let r be ResolveLocale(%Intl.RelativeTimeFormat%.[[AvailableLocales]], requestedLocales, opt, %Intl.RelativeTimeFormat%.[[RelevantExtensionKeys]], %Intl.RelativeTimeFormat%.[[LocaleData]]).
  10. Let locale be r.[[Locale]].
  11. Set relativeTimeFormat.[[Locale]] to locale.
  12. Set relativeTimeFormat.[[LocaleData]] to r.[[LocaleData]].
  13. Set relativeTimeFormat.[[NumberingSystem]] to r.[[nu]].
  14. Let style be ? GetOption(options, "style", string, « "long", "short", "narrow" », "long").
  15. Set relativeTimeFormat.[[Style]] to style.
  16. Let numeric be ? GetOption(options, "numeric", string, « "always", "auto" », "always").
  17. Set relativeTimeFormat.[[Numeric]] to numeric.
  18. Let relativeTimeFormat.[[NumberFormat]] be ! Construct(%Intl.NumberFormat%, « locale »).
  19. Let relativeTimeFormat.[[PluralRules]] be ! Construct(%Intl.PluralRules%, « locale »).
  20. Return relativeTimeFormat.

17.2 Properties of the Intl.RelativeTimeFormat Constructor

The Intl.RelativeTimeFormat constructor has the following properties:

17.2.1 Intl.RelativeTimeFormat.prototype

The value of Intl.RelativeTimeFormat.prototype is %Intl.RelativeTimeFormat.prototype%.

This property has the attributes { [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: false }.

17.2.2 Intl.RelativeTimeFormat.supportedLocalesOf ( locales [ , options ] )

When the supportedLocalesOf method is called with arguments locales and options, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let availableLocales be %Intl.RelativeTimeFormat%.[[AvailableLocales]].
  2. Let requestedLocales be ? CanonicalizeLocaleList(locales).
  3. Return ? SupportedLocales(availableLocales, requestedLocales, options).

17.2.3 Internal slots

The value of the [[AvailableLocales]] internal slot is implementation-defined within the constraints described in 9.1.

The value of the [[RelevantExtensionKeys]] internal slot is « "nu" ».

Note 1
Unicode Technical Standard #35 Part 1 Core, Section 3.6.1 Key and Type Definitions describes one locale extension key that is relevant to relative time formatting: "nu" for numbering system (of formatted numbers).

The value of the [[LocaleData]] internal slot is implementation-defined within the constraints described in 9.1 and the following additional constraints, for all locale values locale:

  • [[LocaleData]].[[<locale>]] has fields "second", "minute", "hour", "day", "week", "month", "quarter", and "year". Additional fields may exist with the previous names concatenated with the strings "-narrow" or "-short". The values corresponding to these fields are Records which contain these two categories of fields:
    • "future" and "past" fields, which are Records with a field for each of the plural categories relevant for locale. The value corresponding to those fields is a pattern which may contain "{0}" to be replaced by a formatted number.
    • Optionally, additional fields whose key is the result of ToString of a Number, and whose values are literal Strings which are not treated as templates.
  • The list that is the value of the "nu" field of any locale field of [[LocaleData]] must not include the values "native", "traditio", or "finance".
Note 2
It is recommended that implementations use the locale data provided by the Common Locale Data Repository (available at https://cldr.unicode.org/).

17.3 Properties of the Intl.RelativeTimeFormat Prototype Object

The Intl.RelativeTimeFormat prototype object is itself an ordinary object. %Intl.RelativeTimeFormat.prototype% is not an Intl.RelativeTimeFormat instance and does not have an [[InitializedRelativeTimeFormat]] internal slot or any of the other internal slots of Intl.RelativeTimeFormat instance objects.

17.3.1 Intl.RelativeTimeFormat.prototype.constructor

The initial value of Intl.RelativeTimeFormat.prototype.constructor is %Intl.RelativeTimeFormat%.

17.3.2 Intl.RelativeTimeFormat.prototype[ @@toStringTag ]

The initial value of the @@toStringTag property is the String value "Intl.RelativeTimeFormat".

This property has the attributes { [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: true }.

17.3.3 Intl.RelativeTimeFormat.prototype.format ( value, unit )

When the format method is called with arguments value and unit, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let relativeTimeFormat be the this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(relativeTimeFormat, [[InitializedRelativeTimeFormat]]).
  3. Let value be ? ToNumber(value).
  4. Let unit be ? ToString(unit).
  5. Return ? FormatRelativeTime(relativeTimeFormat, value, unit).

17.3.4 Intl.RelativeTimeFormat.prototype.formatToParts ( value, unit )

When the formatToParts method is called with arguments value and unit, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let relativeTimeFormat be the this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(relativeTimeFormat, [[InitializedRelativeTimeFormat]]).
  3. Let value be ? ToNumber(value).
  4. Let unit be ? ToString(unit).
  5. Return ? FormatRelativeTimeToParts(relativeTimeFormat, value, unit).

17.3.5 Intl.RelativeTimeFormat.prototype.resolvedOptions ( )

This function provides access to the locale and options computed during initialization of the object.

  1. Let relativeTimeFormat be the this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(relativeTimeFormat, [[InitializedRelativeTimeFormat]]).
  3. Let options be OrdinaryObjectCreate(%Object.prototype%).
  4. For each row of Table 18, except the header row, in table order, do
    1. Let p be the Property value of the current row.
    2. Let v be the value of relativeTimeFormat's internal slot whose name is the Internal Slot value of the current row.
    3. Assert: v is not undefined.
    4. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(options, p, v).
  5. Return options.
Table 18: Resolved Options of RelativeTimeFormat Instances
Internal Slot Property
[[Locale]] "locale"
[[Style]] "style"
[[Numeric]] "numeric"
[[NumberingSystem]] "numberingSystem"

17.4 Properties of Intl.RelativeTimeFormat Instances

Intl.RelativeTimeFormat instances are ordinary objects that inherit properties from %Intl.RelativeTimeFormat.prototype%.

Intl.RelativeTimeFormat instances have an [[InitializedRelativeTimeFormat]] internal slot.

Intl.RelativeTimeFormat instances also have several internal slots that are computed by the constructor:

  • [[Locale]] is a String value with the language tag of the locale whose localization is used for formatting.
  • [[LocaleData]] is a Record representing the data available to the implementation for formatting. It is the value of an entry in %Intl.RelativeTimeFormat%.[[LocaleData]] associated with either the value of [[Locale]] or a prefix thereof.
  • [[Style]] is one of the String values "long", "short", or "narrow", identifying the relative time format style used.
  • [[Numeric]] is one of the String values "always" or "auto", identifying whether numerical descriptions are always used, or used only when no more specific version is available (e.g., "1 day ago" vs "yesterday").
  • [[NumberFormat]] is an Intl.NumberFormat object used for formatting.
  • [[NumberingSystem]] is a String value with the "type" given in Unicode Technical Standard #35 Part 1 Core, Section 3.6.1 Key and Type Definitions for the numbering system used for formatting.
  • [[PluralRules]] is an Intl.PluralRules object used for formatting.

17.5 Abstract Operations for RelativeTimeFormat Objects

17.5.1 SingularRelativeTimeUnit ( unit )

The abstract operation SingularRelativeTimeUnit takes argument unit (a String) and returns either a normal completion containing a String or a throw completion. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If unit is "seconds", return "second".
  2. If unit is "minutes", return "minute".
  3. If unit is "hours", return "hour".
  4. If unit is "days", return "day".
  5. If unit is "weeks", return "week".
  6. If unit is "months", return "month".
  7. If unit is "quarters", return "quarter".
  8. If unit is "years", return "year".
  9. If unit is not one of "second", "minute", "hour", "day", "week", "month", "quarter", or "year", throw a RangeError exception.
  10. Return unit.

17.5.2 PartitionRelativeTimePattern ( relativeTimeFormat, value, unit )

The abstract operation PartitionRelativeTimePattern takes arguments relativeTimeFormat (an Intl.RelativeTimeFormat), value (a Number), and unit (a String) and returns either a normal completion containing a List of Records with fields [[Type]] (a String), [[Value]] (a String), and [[Unit]] (a String or empty), or a throw completion. The returned List represents value according to the effective locale and the formatting options of relativeTimeFormat. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If value is NaN, +∞𝔽, or -∞𝔽, throw a RangeError exception.
  2. Let unit be ? SingularRelativeTimeUnit(unit).
  3. Let fields be relativeTimeFormat.[[LocaleData]].
  4. Let style be relativeTimeFormat.[[Style]].
  5. If style is equal to "short", then
    1. Let entry be the string-concatenation of unit and "-short".
  6. Else if style is equal to "narrow", then
    1. Let entry be the string-concatenation of unit and "-narrow".
  7. Else,
    1. Let entry be unit.
  8. If fields doesn't have a field [[<entry>]], then
    1. Let entry be unit.
  9. Let patterns be fields.[[<entry>]].
  10. Let numeric be relativeTimeFormat.[[Numeric]].
  11. If numeric is equal to "auto", then
    1. Let valueString be ! ToString(value).
    2. If patterns has a field [[<valueString>]], then
      1. Let result be patterns.[[<valueString>]].
      2. Return a List containing the Record { [[Type]]: "literal", [[Value]]: result }.
  12. If value is -0𝔽 or value < -0𝔽, then
    1. Let tl be "past".
  13. Else,
    1. Let tl be "future".
  14. Let po be patterns.[[<tl>]].
  15. Let fv be PartitionNumberPattern(relativeTimeFormat.[[NumberFormat]], (value)).
  16. Let pr be ResolvePlural(relativeTimeFormat.[[PluralRules]], value).[[PluralCategory]].
  17. Let pattern be po.[[<pr>]].
  18. Return MakePartsList(pattern, unit, fv).

17.5.3 MakePartsList ( pattern, unit, parts )

The abstract operation MakePartsList takes arguments pattern (a pattern String), unit (a String), and parts (a List of Records representing a formatted Number) and returns a List of Records with fields [[Type]] (a String), [[Value]] (a String), and [[Unit]] (a String or empty). It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let patternParts be PartitionPattern(pattern).
  2. Let result be a new empty List.
  3. For each Record { [[Type]], [[Value]] } patternPart of patternParts, do
    1. If patternPart.[[Type]] is "literal", then
      1. Append the Record { [[Type]]: "literal", [[Value]]: patternPart.[[Value]], [[Unit]]: empty } to result.
    2. Else,
      1. Assert: patternPart.[[Type]] is "0".
      2. For each Record { [[Type]], [[Value]] } part of parts, do
        1. Append the Record { [[Type]]: part.[[Type]], [[Value]]: part.[[Value]], [[Unit]]: unit } to result.
  4. Return result.
Note
Example:
  1. Return MakePartsList("AA{0}BB", "hour", « Record { [[Type]]: "integer", [[Value]]: "15" } »).
will return a List of Records like « { [[Type]]: "literal", [[Value]]: "AA", [[Unit]]: empty}, { [[Type]]: "integer", [[Value]]: "15", [[Unit]]: "hour"}, { [[Type]]: "literal", [[Value]]: "BB", [[Unit]]: empty} »

17.5.4 FormatRelativeTime ( relativeTimeFormat, value, unit )

The abstract operation FormatRelativeTime takes arguments relativeTimeFormat (an Intl.RelativeTimeFormat), value (a Number), and unit (a String) and returns either a normal completion containing a String or a throw completion. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let parts be ? PartitionRelativeTimePattern(relativeTimeFormat, value, unit).
  2. Let result be an empty String.
  3. For each Record { [[Type]], [[Value]], [[Unit]] } part of parts, do
    1. Set result to the string-concatenation of result and part.[[Value]].
  4. Return result.

17.5.5 FormatRelativeTimeToParts ( relativeTimeFormat, value, unit )

The abstract operation FormatRelativeTimeToParts takes arguments relativeTimeFormat (an Intl.RelativeTimeFormat), value (a Number), and unit (a String) and returns either a normal completion containing an Array or a throw completion. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let parts be ? PartitionRelativeTimePattern(relativeTimeFormat, value, unit).
  2. Let result be ! ArrayCreate(0).
  3. Let n be 0.
  4. For each Record { [[Type]], [[Value]], [[Unit]] } part of parts, do
    1. Let O be OrdinaryObjectCreate(%Object.prototype%).
    2. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(O, "type", part.[[Type]]).
    3. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(O, "value", part.[[Value]]).
    4. If part.[[Unit]] is not empty, then
      1. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(O, "unit", part.[[Unit]]).
    5. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(result, ! ToString(𝔽(n)), O).
    6. Increment n by 1.
  5. Return result.

18 Segmenter Objects

18.1 The Intl.Segmenter Constructor

The Segmenter constructor is the %Intl.Segmenter% intrinsic object and a standard built-in property of the Intl object. Behaviour common to all service constructor properties of the Intl object is specified in 9.1.

18.1.1 Intl.Segmenter ( [ locales [ , options ] ] )

When the Intl.Segmenter function is called with optional arguments locales and options, the following steps are taken:

  1. If NewTarget is undefined, throw a TypeError exception.
  2. Let internalSlotsList be « [[InitializedSegmenter]], [[Locale]], [[SegmenterGranularity]] ».
  3. Let segmenter be ? OrdinaryCreateFromConstructor(NewTarget, "%Intl.Segmenter.prototype%", internalSlotsList).
  4. Let requestedLocales be ? CanonicalizeLocaleList(locales).
  5. Set options to ? GetOptionsObject(options).
  6. Let opt be a new Record.
  7. Let matcher be ? GetOption(options, "localeMatcher", string, « "lookup", "best fit" », "best fit").
  8. Set opt.[[localeMatcher]] to matcher.
  9. Let r be ResolveLocale(%Intl.Segmenter%.[[AvailableLocales]], requestedLocales, opt, %Intl.Segmenter%.[[RelevantExtensionKeys]], %Intl.Segmenter%.[[LocaleData]]).
  10. Set segmenter.[[Locale]] to r.[[Locale]].
  11. Let granularity be ? GetOption(options, "granularity", string, « "grapheme", "word", "sentence" », "grapheme").
  12. Set segmenter.[[SegmenterGranularity]] to granularity.
  13. Return segmenter.

18.2 Properties of the Intl.Segmenter Constructor

The Intl.Segmenter constructor has the following properties:

18.2.1 Intl.Segmenter.prototype

The value of Intl.Segmenter.prototype is %Intl.Segmenter.prototype%.

This property has the attributes { [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: false }.

18.2.2 Intl.Segmenter.supportedLocalesOf ( locales [ , options ] )

When the supportedLocalesOf method is called with arguments locales and options, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let availableLocales be %Intl.Segmenter%.[[AvailableLocales]].
  2. Let requestedLocales be ? CanonicalizeLocaleList(locales).
  3. Return ? SupportedLocales(availableLocales, requestedLocales, options).

18.2.3 Internal slots

The value of the [[AvailableLocales]] internal slot is implementation-defined within the constraints described in 9.1.

The value of the [[RelevantExtensionKeys]] internal slot is « ».

Note
Intl.Segmenter does not have any relevant extension keys.

The value of the [[LocaleData]] internal slot is implementation-defined within the constraints described in 9.1.

18.3 Properties of the Intl.Segmenter Prototype Object

The Intl.Segmenter prototype object is itself an ordinary object. %Intl.Segmenter.prototype% is not an Intl.Segmenter instance and does not have an [[InitializedSegmenter]] internal slot or any of the other internal slots of Intl.Segmenter instance objects.

18.3.1 Intl.Segmenter.prototype.constructor

The initial value of Intl.Segmenter.prototype.constructor is %Intl.Segmenter%.

18.3.2 Intl.Segmenter.prototype [ @@toStringTag ]

The initial value of the @@toStringTag property is the String value "Intl.Segmenter".

This property has the attributes { [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: true }.

18.3.3 Intl.Segmenter.prototype.segment ( string )

The Intl.Segmenter.prototype.segment method is called on an Intl.Segmenter instance with argument string to create a Segments instance for the string using the locale and options of the Intl.Segmenter instance. The following steps are taken:

  1. Let segmenter be the this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(segmenter, [[InitializedSegmenter]]).
  3. Let string be ? ToString(string).
  4. Return CreateSegmentsObject(segmenter, string).

18.3.4 Intl.Segmenter.prototype.resolvedOptions ( )

This function provides access to the locale and options computed during initialization of the object.

  1. Let segmenter be the this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(segmenter, [[InitializedSegmenter]]).
  3. Let options be OrdinaryObjectCreate(%Object.prototype%).
  4. For each row of Table 19, except the header row, in table order, do
    1. Let p be the Property value of the current row.
    2. Let v be the value of segmenter's internal slot whose name is the Internal Slot value of the current row.
    3. Assert: v is not undefined.
    4. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(options, p, v).
  5. Return options.
Table 19: Resolved Options of Segmenter Instances
Internal Slot Property
[[Locale]] "locale"
[[SegmenterGranularity]] "granularity"

18.4 Properties of Intl.Segmenter Instances

Intl.Segmenter instances are ordinary objects that inherit properties from %Intl.Segmenter.prototype%.

Intl.Segmenter instances have an [[InitializedSegmenter]] internal slot.

Intl.Segmenter instances also have internal slots that are computed by the constructor:

  • [[Locale]] is a String value with the language tag of the locale whose localization is used for segmentation.
  • [[SegmenterGranularity]] is one of the String values "grapheme", "word", or "sentence", identifying the kind of text element to segment.

18.5 Segments Objects

A Segments instance is an object that represents the segments of a specific string, subject to the locale and options of its constructing Intl.Segmenter instance.

18.5.1 CreateSegmentsObject ( segmenter, string )

The abstract operation CreateSegmentsObject takes arguments segmenter (an Intl.Segmenter) and string (a String) and returns a Segments instance. The Segments instance references segmenter and string. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let internalSlotsList be « [[SegmentsSegmenter]], [[SegmentsString]] ».
  2. Let segments be OrdinaryObjectCreate(%IntlSegmentsPrototype%, internalSlotsList).
  3. Set segments.[[SegmentsSegmenter]] to segmenter.
  4. Set segments.[[SegmentsString]] to string.
  5. Return segments.

18.5.2 The %IntlSegmentsPrototype% Object

The %IntlSegmentsPrototype% object:

  • is the prototype of all Segments objects.
  • is an ordinary object.
  • has the following properties:

18.5.2.1 %IntlSegmentsPrototype%.containing ( index )

The containing method is called on a Segments instance with argument index to return a Segment Data object describing the segment in the string including the code unit at the specified index according to the locale and options of the Segments instance's constructing Intl.Segmenter instance. The following steps are taken:

  1. Let segments be the this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(segments, [[SegmentsSegmenter]]).
  3. Let segmenter be segments.[[SegmentsSegmenter]].
  4. Let string be segments.[[SegmentsString]].
  5. Let len be the length of string.
  6. Let n be ? ToIntegerOrInfinity(index).
  7. If n < 0 or nlen, return undefined.
  8. Let startIndex be FindBoundary(segmenter, string, n, before).
  9. Let endIndex be FindBoundary(segmenter, string, n, after).
  10. Return CreateSegmentDataObject(segmenter, string, startIndex, endIndex).

18.5.2.2 %IntlSegmentsPrototype% [ @@iterator ] ( )

The @@iterator method is called on a Segments instance to create a Segment Iterator over its string using the locale and options of its constructing Intl.Segmenter instance. The following steps are taken:

  1. Let segments be the this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(segments, [[SegmentsSegmenter]]).
  3. Let segmenter be segments.[[SegmentsSegmenter]].
  4. Let string be segments.[[SegmentsString]].
  5. Return CreateSegmentIterator(segmenter, string).

18.5.3 Properties of Segments Instances

Segments instances are ordinary objects that inherit properties from %IntlSegmentsPrototype%.

Segments instances have a [[SegmentsSegmenter]] internal slot that references the constructing Intl.Segmenter instance.

Segments instances have a [[SegmentsString]] internal slot that references the String value whose segments they expose.

18.6 Segment Iterator Objects

A Segment Iterator is an object that represents a particular iteration over the segments of a specific string.

18.6.1 CreateSegmentIterator ( segmenter, string )

The abstract operation CreateSegmentIterator takes arguments segmenter (an Intl.Segmenter) and string (a String) and returns a Segment Iterator. The Segment Iterator iterates over string using the locale and options of segmenter. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let internalSlotsList be « [[IteratingSegmenter]], [[IteratedString]], [[IteratedStringNextSegmentCodeUnitIndex]] ».
  2. Let iterator be OrdinaryObjectCreate(%IntlSegmentIteratorPrototype%, internalSlotsList).
  3. Set iterator.[[IteratingSegmenter]] to segmenter.
  4. Set iterator.[[IteratedString]] to string.
  5. Set iterator.[[IteratedStringNextSegmentCodeUnitIndex]] to 0.
  6. Return iterator.

18.6.2 The %IntlSegmentIteratorPrototype% Object

The %IntlSegmentIteratorPrototype% object:

  • is the prototype of all Segment Iterator objects.
  • is an ordinary object.
  • has a [[Prototype]] internal slot whose value is the intrinsic object %Iterator.prototype%.
  • has the following properties:

18.6.2.1 %IntlSegmentIteratorPrototype%.next ( )

The next method is called on a Segment Iterator instance to advance it forward one segment and return an IteratorResult object either describing the new segment or declaring iteration done. The following steps are taken:

  1. Let iterator be the this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(iterator, [[IteratingSegmenter]]).
  3. Let segmenter be iterator.[[IteratingSegmenter]].
  4. Let string be iterator.[[IteratedString]].
  5. Let startIndex be iterator.[[IteratedStringNextSegmentCodeUnitIndex]].
  6. Let endIndex be FindBoundary(segmenter, string, startIndex, after).
  7. If endIndex is not finite, then
    1. Return CreateIterResultObject(undefined, true).
  8. Set iterator.[[IteratedStringNextSegmentCodeUnitIndex]] to endIndex.
  9. Let segmentData be CreateSegmentDataObject(segmenter, string, startIndex, endIndex).
  10. Return CreateIterResultObject(segmentData, false).

18.6.2.2 %IntlSegmentIteratorPrototype% [ @@toStringTag ]

The initial value of the @@toStringTag property is the String value "Segmenter String Iterator".

This property has the attributes { [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: true }.

18.6.3 Properties of Segment Iterator Instances

Segment Iterator instances are ordinary objects that inherit properties from %SegmentIteratorPrototype%. Segment Iterator instances are initially created with the internal slots described in Table 20.

Table 20: Internal Slots of Segment Iterator Instances
Internal Slot Description
[[IteratingSegmenter]] The Intl.Segmenter instance used for iteration.
[[IteratedString]] The String value being iterated upon.
[[IteratedStringNextSegmentCodeUnitIndex]] The code unit index in the String value being iterated upon at the start of the next segment.

18.7 Segment Data Objects

A Segment Data object is an object that represents a particular segment from a string.

18.7.1 CreateSegmentDataObject ( segmenter, string, startIndex, endIndex )

The abstract operation CreateSegmentDataObject takes arguments segmenter (an Intl.Segmenter), string (a String), startIndex (a non-negative integer), and endIndex (a non-negative integer) and returns a Segment Data object. The Segment Data object describes the segment within string from segmenter that is bounded by the indices startIndex and endIndex. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let len be the length of string.
  2. Assert: startIndex ≥ 0.
  3. Assert: endIndexlen.
  4. Assert: startIndex < endIndex.
  5. Let result be OrdinaryObjectCreate(%Object.prototype%).
  6. Let segment be the substring of string from startIndex to endIndex.
  7. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(result, "segment", segment).
  8. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(result, "index", 𝔽(startIndex)).
  9. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(result, "input", string).
  10. Let granularity be segmenter.[[SegmenterGranularity]].
  11. If granularity is "word", then
    1. Let isWordLike be a Boolean value indicating whether the segment in string is "word-like" according to locale segmenter.[[Locale]].
    2. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(result, "isWordLike", isWordLike).
  12. Return result.
Note
Whether a segment is "word-like" is implementation-dependent, and implementations are recommended to use locale-sensitive tailorings. In general, segments consisting solely of spaces and/or punctuation (such as those terminated with "WORD_NONE" boundaries by ICU [International Components for Unicode, documented at https://unicode-org.github.io/icu-docs/]) are not considered to be "word-like".

18.8 Abstract Operations for Segmenter Objects

18.8.1 FindBoundary ( segmenter, string, startIndex, direction )

The abstract operation FindBoundary takes arguments segmenter (an Intl.Segmenter), string (a String), startIndex (a non-negative integer), and direction (before or after) and returns a non-negative integer or +∞. It finds a segmentation boundary between two code units in string in the specified direction from the code unit at index startIndex according to the locale and options of segmenter and returns the immediately following code unit index (which will be infinite if no such boundary exists). It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let locale be segmenter.[[Locale]].
  2. Let granularity be segmenter.[[SegmenterGranularity]].
  3. Let len be the length of string.
  4. If direction is before, then
    1. Assert: startIndex ≥ 0.
    2. Assert: startIndex < len.
    3. Search string for the last segmentation boundary that is preceded by at most startIndex code units from the beginning, using locale locale and text element granularity granularity.
    4. If a boundary is found, return the count of code units in string preceding it.
    5. Return 0.
  5. Assert: direction is after.
  6. If len is 0 or startIndexlen, return +∞.
  7. Search string for the first segmentation boundary that follows the code unit at index startIndex, using locale locale and text element granularity granularity.
  8. If a boundary is found, return the count of code units in string preceding it.
  9. Return len.
Note
Boundary determination is implementation-dependent, but general default algorithms are specified in Unicode Standard Annex #29. It is recommended that implementations use locale-sensitive tailorings such as those provided by the Common Locale Data Repository (available at https://cldr.unicode.org).

19 Locale Sensitive Functions of the ECMAScript Language Specification

The ECMAScript Language Specification, edition 10 or successor, describes several locale-sensitive functions. An ECMAScript implementation that implements this specification shall implement these functions as described here.

Note
The Collator, NumberFormat, or DateTimeFormat objects created in the algorithms in this clause are only used within these algorithms. They are never directly accessed by ECMAScript code and need not actually exist within an implementation.

19.1 Properties of the String Prototype Object

19.1.1 String.prototype.localeCompare ( that [ , locales [ , options ] ] )

This definition supersedes the definition provided in es2024, 22.1.3.12.

When the localeCompare method is called with argument that and optional arguments locales, and options, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let O be ? RequireObjectCoercible(this value).
  2. Let S be ? ToString(O).
  3. Let thatValue be ? ToString(that).
  4. Let collator be ? Construct(%Intl.Collator%, « locales, options »).
  5. Return CompareStrings(collator, S, thatValue).
Note 1
The localeCompare method itself is not directly suitable as an argument to Array.prototype.sort because the latter requires a function of two arguments.
Note 2
The localeCompare function is intentionally generic; it does not require that its this value be a String object. Therefore, it can be transferred to other kinds of objects for use as a method.

19.1.2 String.prototype.toLocaleLowerCase ( [ locales ] )

This definition supersedes the definition provided in es2024, 22.1.3.26.

This function interprets a String value as a sequence of code points, as described in es2024, 6.1.4. The following steps are taken:

  1. Let O be ? RequireObjectCoercible(this value).
  2. Let S be ? ToString(O).
  3. Return ? TransformCase(S, locales, lower).
Note
The toLocaleLowerCase function is intentionally generic; it does not require that its this value be a String object. Therefore, it can be transferred to other kinds of objects for use as a method.

19.1.2.1 TransformCase ( S, locales, targetCase )

The abstract operation TransformCase takes arguments S (a String), locales (an ECMAScript language value), and targetCase (lower or upper). It interprets S as a sequence of UTF-16 encoded code points, as described in es2024, 6.1.4, and returns the result of implementation- and locale-dependent (ILD) transformation into targetCase as a new String value. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let requestedLocales be ? CanonicalizeLocaleList(locales).
  2. If requestedLocales is not an empty List, then
    1. Let requestedLocale be requestedLocales[0].
  3. Else,
    1. Let requestedLocale be DefaultLocale().
  4. Let noExtensionsLocale be the String value that is requestedLocale with any Unicode locale extension sequences removed.
  5. Let availableLocales be a List with language tags that includes the languages for which the Unicode Character Database contains language sensitive case mappings. Implementations may add additional language tags if they support case mapping for additional locales.
  6. Let locale be BestAvailableLocale(availableLocales, noExtensionsLocale).
  7. If locale is undefined, set locale to "und".
  8. Let codePoints be StringToCodePoints(S).
  9. If targetCase is lower, then
    1. Let newCodePoints be a List whose elements are the result of a lowercase transformation of codePoints according to an implementation-derived algorithm using locale or the Unicode Default Case Conversion algorithm.
  10. Else,
    1. Assert: targetCase is upper.
    2. Let newCodePoints be a List whose elements are the result of an uppercase transformation of codePoints according to an implementation-derived algorithm using locale or the Unicode Default Case Conversion algorithm.
  11. Return CodePointsToString(newCodePoints).

Code point mappings may be derived according to a tailored version of the Default Case Conversion Algorithms of the Unicode Standard. Implementations may use locale-sensitive tailoring defined in the file SpecialCasing.txt of the Unicode Character Database and/or CLDR and/or any other custom tailoring. Regardless of tailoring, a conforming implementation's case transformation algorithm must always yield the same result given the same input code points, locale, and target case.

Note
The case mapping of some code points may produce multiple code points, and therefore the result may not be the same length as the input. Because both toLocaleUpperCase and toLocaleLowerCase have context-sensitive behaviour, the functions are not symmetrical. In other words, s.toLocaleUpperCase().toLocaleLowerCase() is not necessarily equal to s.toLocaleLowerCase() and s.toLocaleLowerCase().toLocaleUpperCase() is not necessarily equal to s.toLocaleUpperCase().

19.1.3 String.prototype.toLocaleUpperCase ( [ locales ] )

This definition supersedes the definition provided in es2024, 22.1.3.27.

This function interprets a String value as a sequence of code points, as described in es2024, 6.1.4. The following steps are taken:

  1. Let O be ? RequireObjectCoercible(this value).
  2. Let S be ? ToString(O).
  3. Return ? TransformCase(S, locales, upper).
Note
The toLocaleUpperCase function is intentionally generic; it does not require that its this value be a String object. Therefore, it can be transferred to other kinds of objects for use as a method.

19.2 Properties of the Number Prototype Object

The following definition(s) refer to the abstract operation thisNumberValue as defined in es2024, 21.1.3.

19.2.1 Number.prototype.toLocaleString ( [ locales [ , options ] ] )

This definition supersedes the definition provided in es2024, 21.1.3.4.

When the toLocaleString method is called with optional arguments locales and options, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let x be ? ThisNumberValue(this value).
  2. Let numberFormat be ? Construct(%Intl.NumberFormat%, « locales, options »).
  3. Return FormatNumeric(numberFormat, ! ToIntlMathematicalValue(x)).

19.3 Properties of the BigInt Prototype Object

The following definition(s) refer to the abstract operation thisBigIntValue as defined in es2024, 21.2.3.

19.3.1 BigInt.prototype.toLocaleString ( [ locales [ , options ] ] )

This definition supersedes the definition provided in es2024, 21.2.3.2.

When the toLocaleString method is called with optional arguments locales and options, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let x be ? ThisBigIntValue(this value).
  2. Let numberFormat be ? Construct(%Intl.NumberFormat%, « locales, options »).
  3. Return FormatNumeric(numberFormat, (x)).

19.4 Properties of the Date Prototype Object

The following definition(s) refer to the abstract operation thisTimeValue as defined in es2024, 21.4.4.

19.4.1 Date.prototype.toLocaleString ( [ locales [ , options ] ] )

This definition supersedes the definition provided in es2024, 21.4.4.39.

When the toLocaleString method is called with optional arguments locales and options, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let dateObject be the this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(dateObject, [[DateValue]]).
  3. Let x be dateObject.[[DateValue]].
  4. If x is NaN, return "Invalid Date".
  5. Let dateFormat be ? CreateDateTimeFormat(%Intl.DateTimeFormat%, locales, options, any, all).
  6. Return ! FormatDateTime(dateFormat, x).

19.4.2 Date.prototype.toLocaleDateString ( [ locales [ , options ] ] )

This definition supersedes the definition provided in es2024, 21.4.4.38.

When the toLocaleDateString method is called with optional arguments locales and options, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let dateObject be the this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(dateObject, [[DateValue]]).
  3. Let x be dateObject.[[DateValue]].
  4. If x is NaN, return "Invalid Date".
  5. Let dateFormat be ? CreateDateTimeFormat(%Intl.DateTimeFormat%, locales, options, date, date).
  6. Return ! FormatDateTime(dateFormat, x).

19.4.3 Date.prototype.toLocaleTimeString ( [ locales [ , options ] ] )

This definition supersedes the definition provided in es2024, 21.4.4.40.

When the toLocaleTimeString method is called with optional arguments locales and options, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let dateObject be the this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(dateObject, [[DateValue]]).
  3. Let x be dateObject.[[DateValue]].
  4. If x is NaN, return "Invalid Date".
  5. Let timeFormat be ? CreateDateTimeFormat(%Intl.DateTimeFormat%, locales, options, time, time).
  6. Return ! FormatDateTime(timeFormat, x).

19.5 Properties of the Array Prototype Object

19.5.1 Array.prototype.toLocaleString ( [ locales [ , options ] ] )

This definition supersedes the definition provided in es2024, 23.1.3.32.

When the toLocaleString method is called with optional arguments locales and options, the following steps are taken:

  1. Let array be ? ToObject(this value).
  2. Let len be ? LengthOfArrayLike(array).
  3. Let separator be the implementation-defined list-separator String value appropriate for the host environment's current locale (such as ", ").
  4. Let R be the empty String.
  5. Let k be 0.
  6. Repeat, while k < len,
    1. If k > 0, then
      1. Set R to the string-concatenation of R and separator.
    2. Let nextElement be ? Get(array, ! ToString(𝔽(k))).
    3. If nextElement is not undefined or null, then
      1. Let S be ? ToString(? Invoke(nextElement, "toLocaleString", « locales, options »)).
      2. Set R to the string-concatenation of R and S.
    4. Set k to k + 1.
  7. Return R.
Note 1
This algorithm's steps mirror the steps taken in es2024, 23.1.3.32, with the exception that Invoke(nextElement, "toLocaleString") now takes locales and options as arguments.
Note 2
The elements of the array are converted to Strings using their toLocaleString methods, and these Strings are then concatenated, separated by occurrences of an implementation-defined locale-sensitive separator String. This function is analogous to toString except that it is intended to yield a locale-sensitive result corresponding with conventions of the host environment's current locale.
Note 3
The toLocaleString function is intentionally generic; it does not require that its this value be an Array object. Therefore it can be transferred to other kinds of objects for use as a method.

A Implementation Dependent Behaviour

The following aspects of this specification are implementation dependent:

  • In all functionality:
  • In Collator:
    • Support for the Unicode extensions keys "kf", "kn" and the parallel options properties "caseFirst", "numeric" (10.1.2)
    • The set of supported "co" key values (collations) per locale beyond a default collation (10.2.3)
    • The set of supported "kf" key values (case order) per locale (10.2.3)
    • The set of supported "kn" key values (numeric collation) per locale (10.2.3)
    • The default search sensitivity per locale (10.2.3)
    • The default ignore punctuation value per locale (10.2.3)
    • The sort order for each supported locale and options combination (10.3.3.1)
  • In DateTimeFormat:
    • The BestFitFormatMatcher algorithm (11.1.2)
    • The set of supported "ca" key values (calendars) per locale (11.2.3)
    • The set of supported "nu" key values (numbering systems) per locale (11.2.3)
    • The default hourCycle setting per locale (11.2.3)
    • The set of supported date-time formats per locale beyond a core set, including the representations used for each component and the associated patterns (11.2.3)
    • Localized weekday names, era names, month names, day period names, am/pm indicators, and time zone names (11.5.7)
    • The calendric calculations used for calendars other than "gregory", and adjustments for local time zones and daylight saving time (11.5.7)
    • The set of all known registered Zone and Link names of the IANA Time Zone Database and the information about their offsets from UTC and their daylight saving time rules (6.5)
  • In DisplayNames:
    • The localized names (12.2.3)
  • In ListFormat:
    • The patterns used for formatting values (13.2.3)
  • In Locale:
    • Support for the Unicode extensions keys "kf", "kn" and the parallel options properties "caseFirst", "numeric" (14.1.1)
  • In NumberFormat:
    • The set of supported "nu" key values (numbering systems) per locale (15.2.3)
    • The patterns used for formatting values as decimal, percent, currency, or unit values per locale, with or without the sign, with or without accounting format for currencies, and in standard, compact, or scientific notation (15.5.6)
    • Localized representations of NaN and Infinity (15.5.6)
    • The implementation of numbering systems not listed in Table 14 (15.5.6)
    • Localized decimal and grouping separators (15.5.6)
    • Localized plus and minus signs (15.5.6)
    • Localized digit grouping schemata (15.5.6)
    • Localized magnitude thresholds for compact notation (15.5.6)
    • Localized symbols for compact and scientific notation (15.5.6)
    • Localized narrow, short, and long currency symbols and names (15.5.6)
    • Localized narrow, short, and long unit symbols (15.5.6)
  • In PluralRules:
    • List of Strings representing the possible results of plural selection and their corresponding order per locale. (16.1.2)
  • In RelativeTimeFormat:
    • The set of supported "nu" key values (numbering systems) per locale (17.2.3)
    • The patterns used for formatting values (17.2.3)
  • In Segmenter:
    • Boundary determination algorithms (18.8.1)
    • Classification of segments as "word-like" (18.7.1)

B Additions and Changes That Introduce Incompatibilities with Prior Editions

  • 10.1, 15.1, 11.1 In ECMA-402, 1st Edition, constructors could be used to create Intl objects from arbitrary objects. This is no longer possible in 2nd Edition.
  • 11.3.3 In ECMA-402, 1st Edition, the "length" property of the function object F was set to +0𝔽. In 2nd Edition, "length" is set to 1𝔽.
  • 10.3.2 In ECMA-402, 7th Edition, the @@toStringTag property of Intl.Collator.prototype was set to "Object". In 8th Edition, @@toStringTag is set to "Intl.Collator".
  • 11.3.2 In ECMA-402, 7th Edition, the @@toStringTag property of Intl.DateTimeFormat.prototype was set to "Object". In 8th Edition, @@toStringTag is set to "Intl.DateTimeFormat".
  • 15.3.2 In ECMA-402, 7th Edition, the @@toStringTag property of Intl.NumberFormat.prototype was set to "Object". In 8th Edition, @@toStringTag is set to "Intl.NumberFormat".
  • 16.3.2 In ECMA-402, 7th Edition, the @@toStringTag property of Intl.PluralRules.prototype was set to "Object". In 8th Edition, @@toStringTag is set to "Intl.PluralRules".
  • 8.1.1 In ECMA-402, 7th Edition, the @@toStringTag property of Intl was not defined. In 8th Edition, @@toStringTag is set to "Intl".
  • 15.1 In ECMA-402, 8th Edition, the NumberFormat constructor used to throw an error when style is "currency" and maximumFractionDigits was set to a value lower than the default fractional digits for that currency. This behaviour was corrected in the 9th edition, and it no longer throws an error.

C Colophon

This specification is authored on GitHub in a plaintext source format called Ecmarkup. Ecmarkup is an HTML and Markdown dialect that provides a framework and toolset for authoring ECMAScript specifications in plaintext and processing the specification into a full-featured HTML rendering that follows the editorial conventions for this document. Ecmarkup builds on and integrates a number of other formats and technologies including Grammarkdown for defining syntax and Ecmarkdown for authoring algorithm steps. PDF renderings of this specification are produced by printing the HTML rendering to a PDF.

Prior editions of this specification were authored using Word—the Ecmarkup source text that formed the basis of this edition was produced by converting the ECMAScript 2015 Word document to Ecmarkup using an automated conversion tool.

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