7 Abstract Operations

These operations are not a part of the ECMAScript language; they are defined here solely to aid the specification of the semantics of the ECMAScript language. Other, more specialized abstract operations are defined throughout this specification.

7.1 Type Conversion

The ECMAScript language implicitly performs automatic type conversion as needed. To clarify the semantics of certain constructs it is useful to define a set of conversion abstract operations. The conversion abstract operations are polymorphic; they can accept a value of any ECMAScript language type. But no other specification types are used with these operations.

The BigInt type has no implicit conversions in the ECMAScript language; programmers must call BigInt explicitly to convert values from other types.

7.1.1 ToPrimitive ( input [ , preferredType ] )

The abstract operation ToPrimitive takes argument input (an ECMAScript language value) and optional argument preferredType (string or number). It converts its input argument to a non-Object type. If an object is capable of converting to more than one primitive type, it may use the optional hint preferredType to favour that type. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If Type(input) is Object, then
    1. Let exoticToPrim be ? GetMethod(input, @@toPrimitive).
    2. If exoticToPrim is not undefined, then
      1. If preferredType is not present, let hint be "default".
      2. Else if preferredType is string, let hint be "string".
      3. Else,
        1. Assert: preferredType is number.
        2. Let hint be "number".
      4. Let result be ? Call(exoticToPrim, input, « hint »).
      5. If Type(result) is not Object, return result.
      6. Throw a TypeError exception.
    3. If preferredType is not present, let preferredType be number.
    4. Return ? OrdinaryToPrimitive(input, preferredType).
  2. Return input.
Note

When ToPrimitive is called without a hint, then it generally behaves as if the hint were number. However, objects may over-ride this behaviour by defining a @@toPrimitive method. Of the objects defined in this specification only Dates (see 21.4.4.45) and Symbol objects (see 20.4.3.5) over-ride the default ToPrimitive behaviour. Dates treat the absence of a hint as if the hint were string.

7.1.1.1 OrdinaryToPrimitive ( O, hint )

The abstract operation OrdinaryToPrimitive takes arguments O (an Object) and hint (string or number). It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If hint is string, then
    1. Let methodNames be « "toString", "valueOf" ».
  2. Else,
    1. Let methodNames be « "valueOf", "toString" ».
  3. For each element name of methodNames, do
    1. Let method be ? Get(O, name).
    2. If IsCallable(method) is true, then
      1. Let result be ? Call(method, O).
      2. If Type(result) is not Object, return result.
  4. Throw a TypeError exception.

7.1.2 ToBoolean ( argument )

The abstract operation ToBoolean takes argument argument. It converts argument to a value of type Boolean according to Table 14:

Table 14: ToBoolean Conversions
Argument Type Result
Undefined Return false.
Null Return false.
Boolean Return argument.
Number If argument is +0𝔽, -0𝔽, or NaN, return false; otherwise return true.
String If argument is the empty String (its length is 0), return false; otherwise return true.
Symbol Return true.
BigInt If argument is 0, return false; otherwise return true.
Object Return true. Note

An alternate algorithm related to the [[IsHTMLDDA]] internal slot is mandated in section B.3.6.1.

7.1.3 ToNumeric ( value )

The abstract operation ToNumeric takes argument value. It returns value converted to a Number or a BigInt. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let primValue be ? ToPrimitive(value, number).
  2. If Type(primValue) is BigInt, return primValue.
  3. Return ? ToNumber(primValue).

7.1.4 ToNumber ( argument )

The abstract operation ToNumber takes argument argument. It converts argument to a value of type Number according to Table 15:

Table 15: ToNumber Conversions
Argument Type Result
Undefined Return NaN.
Null Return +0𝔽.
Boolean If argument is true, return 1𝔽. If argument is false, return +0𝔽.
Number Return argument (no conversion).
String Return ! StringToNumber(argument).
Symbol Throw a TypeError exception.
BigInt Throw a TypeError exception.
Object

Apply the following steps:

  1. Let primValue be ? ToPrimitive(argument, number).
  2. Return ? ToNumber(primValue).

7.1.4.1 ToNumber Applied to the String Type

The abstract operation StringToNumber specifies how to convert a String value to a Number value, using the following grammar.

Syntax

StringNumericLiteral ::: StrWhiteSpaceopt StrWhiteSpaceopt StrNumericLiteral StrWhiteSpaceopt StrWhiteSpace ::: StrWhiteSpaceChar StrWhiteSpaceopt StrWhiteSpaceChar ::: WhiteSpace LineTerminator StrNumericLiteral ::: StrDecimalLiteral NonDecimalIntegerLiteral[~Sep] StrDecimalLiteral ::: StrUnsignedDecimalLiteral + StrUnsignedDecimalLiteral - StrUnsignedDecimalLiteral StrUnsignedDecimalLiteral ::: Infinity DecimalDigits[~Sep] . DecimalDigits[~Sep]opt ExponentPart[~Sep]opt . DecimalDigits[~Sep] ExponentPart[~Sep]opt DecimalDigits[~Sep] ExponentPart[~Sep]opt

All grammar symbols not explicitly defined above have the definitions used in the Lexical Grammar for numeric literals (12.8.3)

Note

Some differences should be noted between the syntax of a StringNumericLiteral and a NumericLiteral:

7.1.4.1.1 StringToNumber ( str )

The abstract operation StringToNumber takes argument str (a String). It returns a Number. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let text be ! StringToCodePoints(str).
  2. Let literal be ParseText(text, StringNumericLiteral).
  3. If literal is a List of errors, return NaN.
  4. Return StringNumericValue of literal.

7.1.4.1.2 Runtime Semantics: StringNumericValue

The conversion of a StringNumericLiteral to a Number value is similar overall to the determination of the NumericValue of a NumericLiteral (see 12.8.3), but some of the details are different.

StringNumericLiteral ::: StrWhiteSpaceopt
  1. Return +0𝔽.
StringNumericLiteral ::: StrWhiteSpaceopt StrNumericLiteral StrWhiteSpaceopt
  1. Return StringNumericValue of StrNumericLiteral.
StrNumericLiteral ::: NonDecimalIntegerLiteral
  1. Return 𝔽(MV of NonDecimalIntegerLiteral).
StrDecimalLiteral ::: - StrUnsignedDecimalLiteral
  1. Let a be StringNumericValue of StrUnsignedDecimalLiteral.
  2. If a is +0𝔽, return -0𝔽.
  3. Return -a.
StrUnsignedDecimalLiteral ::: Infinity
  1. Return +∞𝔽.
StrUnsignedDecimalLiteral ::: DecimalDigits . DecimalDigitsopt ExponentPartopt
  1. Let a be MV of the first DecimalDigits.
  2. If the second DecimalDigits is present, then
    1. Let b be MV of the second DecimalDigits.
    2. Let n be the number of code points in the second DecimalDigits.
  3. Else,
    1. Let b be 0.
    2. Let n be 0.
  4. If ExponentPart is present, let e be MV of ExponentPart. Otherwise, let e be 0.
  5. Return RoundMVResult((a + (b × 10-n)) × 10e).
StrUnsignedDecimalLiteral ::: . DecimalDigits ExponentPartopt
  1. Let b be MV of DecimalDigits.
  2. If ExponentPart is present, let e be MV of ExponentPart. Otherwise, let e be 0.
  3. Let n be the number of code points in DecimalDigits.
  4. Return RoundMVResult(b × 10e - n).
StrUnsignedDecimalLiteral ::: DecimalDigits ExponentPartopt
  1. Let a be MV of DecimalDigits.
  2. If ExponentPart is present, let e be MV of ExponentPart. Otherwise, let e be 0.
  3. Return RoundMVResult(a × 10e).

7.1.4.1.3 RoundMVResult ( n )

The abstract operation RoundMVResult takes argument n (a mathematical value). It converts n to a Number in an implementation-defined manner. For the purposes of this abstract operation, a digit is significant if it is not zero or there is a non-zero digit to its left and there is a non-zero digit to its right. For the purposes of this abstract operation, "the mathematical value denoted by" a representation of a mathematical value is the inverse of "the decimal representation of" a mathematical value. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If the decimal representation of n has 20 or fewer significant digits, return 𝔽(n).
  2. Let option1 be the mathematical value denoted by the result of replacing each significant digit in the decimal representation of n after the 20th with a 0 digit.
  3. Let option2 be the mathematical value denoted by the result of replacing each significant digit in the decimal representation of n after the 20th with a 0 digit and then incrementing it at the 20th position (with carrying as necessary).
  4. Let chosen be an implementation-defined choice of either option1 or option2.
  5. Return 𝔽(chosen).

7.1.5 ToIntegerOrInfinity ( argument )

The abstract operation ToIntegerOrInfinity takes argument argument. It converts argument to an integer, +∞, or -∞. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let number be ? ToNumber(argument).
  2. If number is NaN, +0𝔽, or -0𝔽, return 0.
  3. If number is +∞𝔽, return +∞.
  4. If number is -∞𝔽, return -∞.
  5. Let integer be floor(abs((number))).
  6. If number < +0𝔽, set integer to -integer.
  7. Return integer.

7.1.6 ToInt32 ( argument )

The abstract operation ToInt32 takes argument argument. It converts argument to one of 232 integral Number values in the range 𝔽(-231) through 𝔽(231 - 1), inclusive. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let number be ? ToNumber(argument).
  2. If number is NaN, +0𝔽, -0𝔽, +∞𝔽, or -∞𝔽, return +0𝔽.
  3. Let int be the mathematical value whose sign is the sign of number and whose magnitude is floor(abs((number))).
  4. Let int32bit be int modulo 232.
  5. If int32bit ≥ 231, return 𝔽(int32bit - 232); otherwise return 𝔽(int32bit).
Note

Given the above definition of ToInt32:

  • The ToInt32 abstract operation is idempotent: if applied to a result that it produced, the second application leaves that value unchanged.
  • ToInt32(ToUint32(x)) is the same value as ToInt32(x) for all values of x. (It is to preserve this latter property that +∞𝔽 and -∞𝔽 are mapped to +0𝔽.)
  • ToInt32 maps -0𝔽 to +0𝔽.

7.1.7 ToUint32 ( argument )

The abstract operation ToUint32 takes argument argument. It converts argument to one of 232 integral Number values in the range +0𝔽 through 𝔽(232 - 1), inclusive. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let number be ? ToNumber(argument).
  2. If number is NaN, +0𝔽, -0𝔽, +∞𝔽, or -∞𝔽, return +0𝔽.
  3. Let int be the mathematical value whose sign is the sign of number and whose magnitude is floor(abs((number))).
  4. Let int32bit be int modulo 232.
  5. Return 𝔽(int32bit).
Note

Given the above definition of ToUint32:

  • Step 5 is the only difference between ToUint32 and ToInt32.
  • The ToUint32 abstract operation is idempotent: if applied to a result that it produced, the second application leaves that value unchanged.
  • ToUint32(ToInt32(x)) is the same value as ToUint32(x) for all values of x. (It is to preserve this latter property that +∞𝔽 and -∞𝔽 are mapped to +0𝔽.)
  • ToUint32 maps -0𝔽 to +0𝔽.

7.1.8 ToInt16 ( argument )

The abstract operation ToInt16 takes argument argument. It converts argument to one of 216 integral Number values in the range 𝔽(-215) through 𝔽(215 - 1), inclusive. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let number be ? ToNumber(argument).
  2. If number is NaN, +0𝔽, -0𝔽, +∞𝔽, or -∞𝔽, return +0𝔽.
  3. Let int be the mathematical value whose sign is the sign of number and whose magnitude is floor(abs((number))).
  4. Let int16bit be int modulo 216.
  5. If int16bit ≥ 215, return 𝔽(int16bit - 216); otherwise return 𝔽(int16bit).

7.1.9 ToUint16 ( argument )

The abstract operation ToUint16 takes argument argument. It converts argument to one of 216 integral Number values in the range +0𝔽 through 𝔽(216 - 1), inclusive. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let number be ? ToNumber(argument).
  2. If number is NaN, +0𝔽, -0𝔽, +∞𝔽, or -∞𝔽, return +0𝔽.
  3. Let int be the mathematical value whose sign is the sign of number and whose magnitude is floor(abs((number))).
  4. Let int16bit be int modulo 216.
  5. Return 𝔽(int16bit).
Note

Given the above definition of ToUint16:

  • The substitution of 216 for 232 in step 4 is the only difference between ToUint32 and ToUint16.
  • ToUint16 maps -0𝔽 to +0𝔽.

7.1.10 ToInt8 ( argument )

The abstract operation ToInt8 takes argument argument. It converts argument to one of 28 integral Number values in the range -128𝔽 through 127𝔽, inclusive. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let number be ? ToNumber(argument).
  2. If number is NaN, +0𝔽, -0𝔽, +∞𝔽, or -∞𝔽, return +0𝔽.
  3. Let int be the mathematical value whose sign is the sign of number and whose magnitude is floor(abs((number))).
  4. Let int8bit be int modulo 28.
  5. If int8bit ≥ 27, return 𝔽(int8bit - 28); otherwise return 𝔽(int8bit).

7.1.11 ToUint8 ( argument )

The abstract operation ToUint8 takes argument argument. It converts argument to one of 28 integral Number values in the range +0𝔽 through 255𝔽, inclusive. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let number be ? ToNumber(argument).
  2. If number is NaN, +0𝔽, -0𝔽, +∞𝔽, or -∞𝔽, return +0𝔽.
  3. Let int be the mathematical value whose sign is the sign of number and whose magnitude is floor(abs((number))).
  4. Let int8bit be int modulo 28.
  5. Return 𝔽(int8bit).

7.1.12 ToUint8Clamp ( argument )

The abstract operation ToUint8Clamp takes argument argument. It converts argument to one of 28 integral Number values in the range +0𝔽 through 255𝔽, inclusive. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let number be ? ToNumber(argument).
  2. If number is NaN, return +0𝔽.
  3. If (number) ≤ 0, return +0𝔽.
  4. If (number) ≥ 255, return 255𝔽.
  5. Let f be floor((number)).
  6. If f + 0.5 < (number), return 𝔽(f + 1).
  7. If (number) < f + 0.5, return 𝔽(f).
  8. If f is odd, return 𝔽(f + 1).
  9. Return 𝔽(f).
Note

Unlike the other ECMAScript integer conversion abstract operation, ToUint8Clamp rounds rather than truncates non-integral values and does not convert +∞𝔽 to +0𝔽. ToUint8Clamp does “round half to even” tie-breaking. This differs from Math.round which does “round half up” tie-breaking.

7.1.13 ToBigInt ( argument )

The abstract operation ToBigInt takes argument argument. It converts argument to a BigInt value, or throws if an implicit conversion from Number would be required. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let prim be ? ToPrimitive(argument, number).
  2. Return the value that prim corresponds to in Table 16.
Table 16: BigInt Conversions
Argument Type Result
Undefined Throw a TypeError exception.
Null Throw a TypeError exception.
Boolean Return 1n if prim is true and 0n if prim is false.
BigInt Return prim.
Number Throw a TypeError exception.
String
  1. Let n be ! StringToBigInt(prim).
  2. If n is NaN, throw a SyntaxError exception.
  3. Return n.
Symbol Throw a TypeError exception.

7.1.14 StringToBigInt ( argument )

The abstract operation StringToBigInt takes argument argument.

Apply the algorithm in 7.1.4.1 with the following changes:

  • Replace the StrUnsignedDecimalLiteral production with DecimalDigits to not allow Infinity, decimal points, or exponents.
  • If the MV is NaN, return NaN, otherwise return the BigInt which exactly corresponds to the MV, rather than rounding to a Number.

7.1.15 ToBigInt64 ( argument )

The abstract operation ToBigInt64 takes argument argument. It converts argument to one of 264 BigInt values in the range (-263) through (263-1), inclusive. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let n be ? ToBigInt(argument).
  2. Let int64bit be (n) modulo 264.
  3. If int64bit ≥ 263, return (int64bit - 264); otherwise return (int64bit).

7.1.16 ToBigUint64 ( argument )

The abstract operation ToBigUint64 takes argument argument. It converts argument to one of 264 BigInt values in the range 0 through the BigInt value for (264-1), inclusive. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let n be ? ToBigInt(argument).
  2. Let int64bit be (n) modulo 264.
  3. Return (int64bit).

7.1.17 ToString ( argument )

The abstract operation ToString takes argument argument. It converts argument to a value of type String according to Table 17:

Table 17: ToString Conversions
Argument Type Result
Undefined Return "undefined".
Null Return "null".
Boolean

If argument is true, return "true".

If argument is false, return "false".

Number Return ! Number::toString(argument).
String Return argument.
Symbol Throw a TypeError exception.
BigInt Return ! BigInt::toString(argument).
Object

Apply the following steps:

  1. Let primValue be ? ToPrimitive(argument, string).
  2. Return ? ToString(primValue).

7.1.18 ToObject ( argument )

The abstract operation ToObject takes argument argument. It converts argument to a value of type Object according to Table 18:

Table 18: ToObject Conversions
Argument Type Result
Undefined Throw a TypeError exception.
Null Throw a TypeError exception.
Boolean Return a new Boolean object whose [[BooleanData]] internal slot is set to argument. See 20.3 for a description of Boolean objects.
Number Return a new Number object whose [[NumberData]] internal slot is set to argument. See 21.1 for a description of Number objects.
String Return a new String object whose [[StringData]] internal slot is set to argument. See 22.1 for a description of String objects.
Symbol Return a new Symbol object whose [[SymbolData]] internal slot is set to argument. See 20.4 for a description of Symbol objects.
BigInt Return a new BigInt object whose [[BigIntData]] internal slot is set to argument. See 21.2 for a description of BigInt objects.
Object Return argument.

7.1.19 ToPropertyKey ( argument )

The abstract operation ToPropertyKey takes argument argument. It converts argument to a value that can be used as a property key. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let key be ? ToPrimitive(argument, string).
  2. If Type(key) is Symbol, then
    1. Return key.
  3. Return ! ToString(key).

7.1.20 ToLength ( argument )

The abstract operation ToLength takes argument argument. It converts argument to an integral Number suitable for use as the length of an array-like object. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let len be ? ToIntegerOrInfinity(argument).
  2. If len ≤ 0, return +0𝔽.
  3. Return 𝔽(min(len, 253 - 1)).

7.1.21 CanonicalNumericIndexString ( argument )

The abstract operation CanonicalNumericIndexString takes argument argument (a String). It returns argument converted to a Number value if it is a String representation of a Number that would be produced by ToString, or the string "-0". Otherwise, it returns undefined. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If argument is "-0", return -0𝔽.
  2. Let n be ! ToNumber(argument).
  3. If SameValue(! ToString(n), argument) is false, return undefined.
  4. Return n.

A canonical numeric string is any String value for which the CanonicalNumericIndexString abstract operation does not return undefined.

7.1.22 ToIndex ( value )

The abstract operation ToIndex takes argument value. It returns value argument converted to a non-negative integer if it is a valid integer index value. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If value is undefined, then
    1. Return 0.
  2. Else,
    1. Let integerIndex be 𝔽(? ToIntegerOrInfinity(value)).
    2. If integerIndex < +0𝔽, throw a RangeError exception.
    3. Let index be ! ToLength(integerIndex).
    4. If ! SameValue(integerIndex, index) is false, throw a RangeError exception.
    5. Return (index).

7.2 Testing and Comparison Operations

7.2.1 RequireObjectCoercible ( argument )

The abstract operation RequireObjectCoercible takes argument argument. It throws an error if argument is a value that cannot be converted to an Object using ToObject. It is defined by Table 19:

Table 19: RequireObjectCoercible Results
Argument Type Result
Undefined Throw a TypeError exception.
Null Throw a TypeError exception.
Boolean Return argument.
Number Return argument.
String Return argument.
Symbol Return argument.
BigInt Return argument.
Object Return argument.

7.2.2 IsArray ( argument )

The abstract operation IsArray takes argument argument. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If Type(argument) is not Object, return false.
  2. If argument is an Array exotic object, return true.
  3. If argument is a Proxy exotic object, then
    1. If argument.[[ProxyHandler]] is null, throw a TypeError exception.
    2. Let target be argument.[[ProxyTarget]].
    3. Return ? IsArray(target).
  4. Return false.

7.2.3 IsCallable ( argument )

The abstract operation IsCallable takes argument argument (an ECMAScript language value). It determines if argument is a callable function with a [[Call]] internal method. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If Type(argument) is not Object, return false.
  2. If argument has a [[Call]] internal method, return true.
  3. Return false.

7.2.4 IsConstructor ( argument )

The abstract operation IsConstructor takes argument argument (an ECMAScript language value). It determines if argument is a function object with a [[Construct]] internal method. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If Type(argument) is not Object, return false.
  2. If argument has a [[Construct]] internal method, return true.
  3. Return false.

7.2.5 IsExtensible ( O )

The abstract operation IsExtensible takes argument O (an Object). It returns a completion record which, if its [[Type]] is normal, has a [[Value]] which is a Boolean. It is used to determine whether additional properties can be added to O. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Return ? O.[[IsExtensible]]().

7.2.6 IsIntegralNumber ( argument )

The abstract operation IsIntegralNumber takes argument argument. It determines if argument is a finite integral Number value. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If Type(argument) is not Number, return false.
  2. If argument is NaN, +∞𝔽, or -∞𝔽, return false.
  3. If floor(abs((argument))) ≠ abs((argument)), return false.
  4. Return true.

7.2.7 IsPropertyKey ( argument )

The abstract operation IsPropertyKey takes argument argument (an ECMAScript language value). It determines if argument is a value that may be used as a property key. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If Type(argument) is String, return true.
  2. If Type(argument) is Symbol, return true.
  3. Return false.

7.2.8 IsRegExp ( argument )

The abstract operation IsRegExp takes argument argument. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If Type(argument) is not Object, return false.
  2. Let matcher be ? Get(argument, @@match).
  3. If matcher is not undefined, return ! ToBoolean(matcher).
  4. If argument has a [[RegExpMatcher]] internal slot, return true.
  5. Return false.

7.2.9 IsStringPrefix ( p, q )

The abstract operation IsStringPrefix takes arguments p (a String) and q (a String). It determines if p is a prefix of q. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If q can be the string-concatenation of p and some other String r, return true. Otherwise, return false.
Note

Any String is a prefix of itself, because r may be the empty String.

7.2.10 SameValue ( x, y )

The abstract operation SameValue takes arguments x (an ECMAScript language value) and y (an ECMAScript language value). It returns a completion record whose [[Type]] is normal and whose [[Value]] is a Boolean indicating whether or not the two arguments are the same value. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If Type(x) is different from Type(y), return false.
  2. If Type(x) is Number or BigInt, then
    1. Return ! Type(x)::sameValue(x, y).
  3. Return ! SameValueNonNumeric(x, y).
Note

This algorithm differs from the IsStrictlyEqual Algorithm by treating all NaN values as equivalent and by differentiating +0𝔽 from -0𝔽.

7.2.11 SameValueZero ( x, y )

The abstract operation SameValueZero takes arguments x (an ECMAScript language value) and y (an ECMAScript language value). It returns a completion record whose [[Type]] is normal and whose [[Value]] is a Boolean indicating whether or not the two arguments are the same value (ignoring the difference between +0𝔽 and -0𝔽). It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If Type(x) is different from Type(y), return false.
  2. If Type(x) is Number or BigInt, then
    1. Return ! Type(x)::sameValueZero(x, y).
  3. Return ! SameValueNonNumeric(x, y).
Note

SameValueZero differs from SameValue only in that it treats +0𝔽 and -0𝔽 as equivalent.

7.2.12 SameValueNonNumeric ( x, y )

The abstract operation SameValueNonNumeric takes arguments x (an ECMAScript language value, but not a Number or a BigInt) and y (an ECMAScript language value, but not a Number or a BigInt). It returns a completion record whose [[Type]] is normal and whose [[Value]] is a Boolean. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Assert: Type(x) is the same as Type(y).
  2. If Type(x) is Undefined, return true.
  3. If Type(x) is Null, return true.
  4. If Type(x) is String, then
    1. If x and y are exactly the same sequence of code units (same length and same code units at corresponding indices), return true; otherwise, return false.
  5. If Type(x) is Boolean, then
    1. If x and y are both true or both false, return true; otherwise, return false.
  6. If Type(x) is Symbol, then
    1. If x and y are both the same Symbol value, return true; otherwise, return false.
  7. If x and y are the same Object value, return true. Otherwise, return false.

7.2.13 IsLessThan ( x, y, LeftFirst )

The abstract operation IsLessThan takes arguments x (an ECMAScript language value), y (an ECMAScript language value), and LeftFirst (a Boolean). It provides the semantics for the comparison x < y, returning true, false, or undefined (which indicates that at least one operand is NaN). The LeftFirst flag is used to control the order in which operations with potentially visible side-effects are performed upon x and y. It is necessary because ECMAScript specifies left to right evaluation of expressions. If LeftFirst is true, the x parameter corresponds to an expression that occurs to the left of the y parameter's corresponding expression. If LeftFirst is false, the reverse is the case and operations must be performed upon y before x. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If the LeftFirst flag is true, then
    1. Let px be ? ToPrimitive(x, number).
    2. Let py be ? ToPrimitive(y, number).
  2. Else,
    1. NOTE: The order of evaluation needs to be reversed to preserve left to right evaluation.
    2. Let py be ? ToPrimitive(y, number).
    3. Let px be ? ToPrimitive(x, number).
  3. If Type(px) is String and Type(py) is String, then
    1. If IsStringPrefix(py, px) is true, return false.
    2. If IsStringPrefix(px, py) is true, return true.
    3. Let k be the smallest non-negative integer such that the code unit at index k within px is different from the code unit at index k within py. (There must be such a k, for neither String is a prefix of the other.)
    4. Let m be the integer that is the numeric value of the code unit at index k within px.
    5. Let n be the integer that is the numeric value of the code unit at index k within py.
    6. If m < n, return true. Otherwise, return false.
  4. Else,
    1. If Type(px) is BigInt and Type(py) is String, then
      1. Let ny be ! StringToBigInt(py).
      2. If ny is NaN, return undefined.
      3. Return BigInt::lessThan(px, ny).
    2. If Type(px) is String and Type(py) is BigInt, then
      1. Let nx be ! StringToBigInt(px).
      2. If nx is NaN, return undefined.
      3. Return BigInt::lessThan(nx, py).
    3. NOTE: Because px and py are primitive values, evaluation order is not important.
    4. Let nx be ? ToNumeric(px).
    5. Let ny be ? ToNumeric(py).
    6. If Type(nx) is the same as Type(ny), return Type(nx)::lessThan(nx, ny).
    7. Assert: Type(nx) is BigInt and Type(ny) is Number, or Type(nx) is Number and Type(ny) is BigInt.
    8. If nx or ny is NaN, return undefined.
    9. If nx is -∞𝔽 or ny is +∞𝔽, return true.
    10. If nx is +∞𝔽 or ny is -∞𝔽, return false.
    11. If (nx) < (ny), return true; otherwise return false.
Note 1

Step 3 differs from step 2.c in the algorithm that handles the addition operator + (13.15.3) by using the logical-and operation instead of the logical-or operation.

Note 2

The comparison of Strings uses a simple lexicographic ordering on sequences of code unit values. There is no attempt to use the more complex, semantically oriented definitions of character or string equality and collating order defined in the Unicode specification. Therefore String values that are canonically equal according to the Unicode standard could test as unequal. In effect this algorithm assumes that both Strings are already in normalized form. Also, note that for strings containing supplementary characters, lexicographic ordering on sequences of UTF-16 code unit values differs from that on sequences of code point values.

7.2.14 IsLooselyEqual ( x, y )

The abstract operation IsLooselyEqual takes arguments x (an ECMAScript language value) and y (an ECMAScript language value). It provides the semantics for the comparison x == y, returning true or false. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If Type(x) is the same as Type(y), then
    1. Return IsStrictlyEqual(x, y).
  2. If x is null and y is undefined, return true.
  3. If x is undefined and y is null, return true.
  4. NOTE: This step is replaced in section B.3.6.2.
  5. If Type(x) is Number and Type(y) is String, return IsLooselyEqual(x, ! ToNumber(y)).
  6. If Type(x) is String and Type(y) is Number, return IsLooselyEqual(! ToNumber(x), y).
  7. If Type(x) is BigInt and Type(y) is String, then
    1. Let n be ! StringToBigInt(y).
    2. If n is NaN, return false.
    3. Return IsLooselyEqual(x, n).
  8. If Type(x) is String and Type(y) is BigInt, return IsLooselyEqual(y, x).
  9. If Type(x) is Boolean, return IsLooselyEqual(! ToNumber(x), y).
  10. If Type(y) is Boolean, return IsLooselyEqual(x, ! ToNumber(y)).
  11. If Type(x) is either String, Number, BigInt, or Symbol and Type(y) is Object, return IsLooselyEqual(x, ? ToPrimitive(y)).
  12. If Type(x) is Object and Type(y) is either String, Number, BigInt, or Symbol, return IsLooselyEqual(? ToPrimitive(x), y).
  13. If Type(x) is BigInt and Type(y) is Number, or if Type(x) is Number and Type(y) is BigInt, then
    1. If x or y are any of NaN, +∞𝔽, or -∞𝔽, return false.
    2. If (x) = (y), return true; otherwise return false.
  14. Return false.

7.2.15 IsStrictlyEqual ( x, y )

The abstract operation IsStrictlyEqual takes arguments x (an ECMAScript language value) and y (an ECMAScript language value). It provides the semantics for the comparison x === y, returning true or false. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If Type(x) is different from Type(y), return false.
  2. If Type(x) is Number or BigInt, then
    1. Return ! Type(x)::equal(x, y).
  3. Return ! SameValueNonNumeric(x, y).
Note

This algorithm differs from the SameValue Algorithm in its treatment of signed zeroes and NaNs.

7.3 Operations on Objects

7.3.1 MakeBasicObject ( internalSlotsList )

The abstract operation MakeBasicObject takes argument internalSlotsList (a List of internal slot names). It is the source of all ECMAScript objects that are created algorithmically, including both ordinary objects and exotic objects. It factors out common steps used in creating all objects, and centralizes object creation. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let obj be a newly created object with an internal slot for each name in internalSlotsList.
  2. Set obj's essential internal methods to the default ordinary object definitions specified in 10.1.
  3. Assert: If the caller will not be overriding both obj's [[GetPrototypeOf]] and [[SetPrototypeOf]] essential internal methods, then internalSlotsList contains [[Prototype]].
  4. Assert: If the caller will not be overriding all of obj's [[SetPrototypeOf]], [[IsExtensible]], and [[PreventExtensions]] essential internal methods, then internalSlotsList contains [[Extensible]].
  5. If internalSlotsList contains [[Extensible]], set obj.[[Extensible]] to true.
  6. Return obj.
Note

Within this specification, exotic objects are created in abstract operations such as ArrayCreate and BoundFunctionCreate by first calling MakeBasicObject to obtain a basic, foundational object, and then overriding some or all of that object's internal methods. In order to encapsulate exotic object creation, the object's essential internal methods are never modified outside those operations.

7.3.2 Get ( O, P )

The abstract operation Get takes arguments O (an Object) and P (a property key). It is used to retrieve the value of a specific property of an object. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Return ? O.[[Get]](P, O).

7.3.3 GetV ( V, P )

The abstract operation GetV takes arguments V (an ECMAScript language value) and P (a property key). It is used to retrieve the value of a specific property of an ECMAScript language value. If the value is not an object, the property lookup is performed using a wrapper object appropriate for the type of the value. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let O be ? ToObject(V).
  2. Return ? O.[[Get]](P, V).

7.3.4 Set ( O, P, V, Throw )

The abstract operation Set takes arguments O (an Object), P (a property key), V (an ECMAScript language value), and Throw (a Boolean). It is used to set the value of a specific property of an object. V is the new value for the property. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let success be ? O.[[Set]](P, V, O).
  2. If success is false and Throw is true, throw a TypeError exception.
  3. Return success.

7.3.5 CreateDataProperty ( O, P, V )

The abstract operation CreateDataProperty takes arguments O (an Object), P (a property key), and V (an ECMAScript language value). It is used to create a new own property of an object. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let newDesc be the PropertyDescriptor { [[Value]]: V, [[Writable]]: true, [[Enumerable]]: true, [[Configurable]]: true }.
  2. Return ? O.[[DefineOwnProperty]](P, newDesc).
Note

This abstract operation creates a property whose attributes are set to the same defaults used for properties created by the ECMAScript language assignment operator. Normally, the property will not already exist. If it does exist and is not configurable or if O is not extensible, [[DefineOwnProperty]] will return false.

7.3.6 CreateMethodProperty ( O, P, V )

The abstract operation CreateMethodProperty takes arguments O (an Object), P (a property key), and V (an ECMAScript language value). It is used to create a new own property of an object. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let newDesc be the PropertyDescriptor { [[Value]]: V, [[Writable]]: true, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: true }.
  2. Return ? O.[[DefineOwnProperty]](P, newDesc).
Note

This abstract operation creates a property whose attributes are set to the same defaults used for built-in methods and methods defined using class declaration syntax. Normally, the property will not already exist. If it does exist and is not configurable or if O is not extensible, [[DefineOwnProperty]] will return false.

7.3.7 CreateDataPropertyOrThrow ( O, P, V )

The abstract operation CreateDataPropertyOrThrow takes arguments O (an Object), P (a property key), and V (an ECMAScript language value). It is used to create a new own property of an object. It throws a TypeError exception if the requested property update cannot be performed. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let success be ? CreateDataProperty(O, P, V).
  2. If success is false, throw a TypeError exception.
  3. Return success.
Note

This abstract operation creates a property whose attributes are set to the same defaults used for properties created by the ECMAScript language assignment operator. Normally, the property will not already exist. If it does exist and is not configurable or if O is not extensible, [[DefineOwnProperty]] will return false causing this operation to throw a TypeError exception.

7.3.8 DefinePropertyOrThrow ( O, P, desc )

The abstract operation DefinePropertyOrThrow takes arguments O (an Object), P (a property key), and desc (a Property Descriptor). It is used to call the [[DefineOwnProperty]] internal method of an object in a manner that will throw a TypeError exception if the requested property update cannot be performed. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let success be ? O.[[DefineOwnProperty]](P, desc).
  2. If success is false, throw a TypeError exception.
  3. Return success.

7.3.9 DeletePropertyOrThrow ( O, P )

The abstract operation DeletePropertyOrThrow takes arguments O (an Object) and P (a property key). It is used to remove a specific own property of an object. It throws an exception if the property is not configurable. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let success be ? O.[[Delete]](P).
  2. If success is false, throw a TypeError exception.
  3. Return success.

7.3.10 GetMethod ( V, P )

The abstract operation GetMethod takes arguments V (an ECMAScript language value) and P (a property key). It is used to get the value of a specific property of an ECMAScript language value when the value of the property is expected to be a function. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let func be ? GetV(V, P).
  2. If func is either undefined or null, return undefined.
  3. If IsCallable(func) is false, throw a TypeError exception.
  4. Return func.

7.3.11 HasProperty ( O, P )

The abstract operation HasProperty takes arguments O (an Object) and P (a property key). It returns a completion record which, if its [[Type]] is normal, has a [[Value]] which is a Boolean. It is used to determine whether an object has a property with the specified property key. The property may be either an own or inherited. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Return ? O.[[HasProperty]](P).

7.3.12 HasOwnProperty ( O, P )

The abstract operation HasOwnProperty takes arguments O (an Object) and P (a property key). It returns a completion record which, if its [[Type]] is normal, has a [[Value]] which is a Boolean. It is used to determine whether an object has an own property with the specified property key. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let desc be ? O.[[GetOwnProperty]](P).
  2. If desc is undefined, return false.
  3. Return true.

7.3.13 Call ( F, V [ , argumentsList ] )

The abstract operation Call takes arguments F (an ECMAScript language value) and V (an ECMAScript language value) and optional argument argumentsList (a List of ECMAScript language values). It is used to call the [[Call]] internal method of a function object. F is the function object, V is an ECMAScript language value that is the this value of the [[Call]], and argumentsList is the value passed to the corresponding argument of the internal method. If argumentsList is not present, a new empty List is used as its value. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If argumentsList is not present, set argumentsList to a new empty List.
  2. If IsCallable(F) is false, throw a TypeError exception.
  3. Return ? F.[[Call]](V, argumentsList).

7.3.14 Construct ( F [ , argumentsList [ , newTarget ] ] )

The abstract operation Construct takes argument F (a constructor) and optional arguments argumentsList and newTarget (a constructor). It is used to call the [[Construct]] internal method of a function object. argumentsList and newTarget are the values to be passed as the corresponding arguments of the internal method. If argumentsList is not present, a new empty List is used as its value. If newTarget is not present, F is used as its value. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If newTarget is not present, set newTarget to F.
  2. If argumentsList is not present, set argumentsList to a new empty List.
  3. Return ? F.[[Construct]](argumentsList, newTarget).
Note

If newTarget is not present, this operation is equivalent to: new F(...argumentsList)

7.3.15 SetIntegrityLevel ( O, level )

The abstract operation SetIntegrityLevel takes arguments O (an Object) and level (sealed or frozen). It is used to fix the set of own properties of an object. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let status be ? O.[[PreventExtensions]]().
  2. If status is false, return false.
  3. Let keys be ? O.[[OwnPropertyKeys]]().
  4. If level is sealed, then
    1. For each element k of keys, do
      1. Perform ? DefinePropertyOrThrow(O, k, PropertyDescriptor { [[Configurable]]: false }).
  5. Else,
    1. Assert: level is frozen.
    2. For each element k of keys, do
      1. Let currentDesc be ? O.[[GetOwnProperty]](k).
      2. If currentDesc is not undefined, then
        1. If IsAccessorDescriptor(currentDesc) is true, then
          1. Let desc be the PropertyDescriptor { [[Configurable]]: false }.
        2. Else,
          1. Let desc be the PropertyDescriptor { [[Configurable]]: false, [[Writable]]: false }.
        3. Perform ? DefinePropertyOrThrow(O, k, desc).
  6. Return true.

7.3.16 TestIntegrityLevel ( O, level )

The abstract operation TestIntegrityLevel takes arguments O (an Object) and level (sealed or frozen). It is used to determine if the set of own properties of an object are fixed. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let extensible be ? IsExtensible(O).
  2. If extensible is true, return false.
  3. NOTE: If the object is extensible, none of its properties are examined.
  4. Let keys be ? O.[[OwnPropertyKeys]]().
  5. For each element k of keys, do
    1. Let currentDesc be ? O.[[GetOwnProperty]](k).
    2. If currentDesc is not undefined, then
      1. If currentDesc.[[Configurable]] is true, return false.
      2. If level is frozen and IsDataDescriptor(currentDesc) is true, then
        1. If currentDesc.[[Writable]] is true, return false.
  6. Return true.

7.3.17 CreateArrayFromList ( elements )

The abstract operation CreateArrayFromList takes argument elements (a List of ECMAScript language values). It is used to create an Array whose elements are provided by elements. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let array be ! ArrayCreate(0).
  2. Let n be 0.
  3. For each element e of elements, do
    1. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(array, ! ToString(𝔽(n)), e).
    2. Set n to n + 1.
  4. Return array.

7.3.18 LengthOfArrayLike ( obj )

The abstract operation LengthOfArrayLike takes argument obj (an Object). It returns the value of the "length" property of an array-like object (as a non-negative integer). It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Return (? ToLength(? Get(obj, "length"))).

An array-like object is any object for which this operation returns an integer rather than an abrupt completion.

Note 1
Typically, an array-like object would also have some properties with integer index names. However, that is not a requirement of this definition.
Note 2
Arrays and String objects are examples of array-like objects.

7.3.19 CreateListFromArrayLike ( obj [ , elementTypes ] )

The abstract operation CreateListFromArrayLike takes argument obj and optional argument elementTypes (a List of names of ECMAScript Language Types). It is used to create a List value whose elements are provided by the indexed properties of obj. elementTypes contains the names of ECMAScript Language Types that are allowed for element values of the List that is created. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If elementTypes is not present, set elementTypes to « Undefined, Null, Boolean, String, Symbol, Number, BigInt, Object ».
  2. If Type(obj) is not Object, throw a TypeError exception.
  3. Let len be ? LengthOfArrayLike(obj).
  4. Let list be a new empty List.
  5. Let index be 0.
  6. Repeat, while index < len,
    1. Let indexName be ! ToString(𝔽(index)).
    2. Let next be ? Get(obj, indexName).
    3. If Type(next) is not an element of elementTypes, throw a TypeError exception.
    4. Append next as the last element of list.
    5. Set index to index + 1.
  7. Return list.

7.3.20 Invoke ( V, P [ , argumentsList ] )

The abstract operation Invoke takes arguments V (an ECMAScript language value) and P (a property key) and optional argument argumentsList (a List of ECMAScript language values). It is used to call a method property of an ECMAScript language value. V serves as both the lookup point for the property and the this value of the call. argumentsList is the list of arguments values passed to the method. If argumentsList is not present, a new empty List is used as its value. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If argumentsList is not present, set argumentsList to a new empty List.
  2. Let func be ? GetV(V, P).
  3. Return ? Call(func, V, argumentsList).

7.3.21 OrdinaryHasInstance ( C, O )

The abstract operation OrdinaryHasInstance takes arguments C (an ECMAScript language value) and O. It implements the default algorithm for determining if O inherits from the instance object inheritance path provided by C. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If IsCallable(C) is false, return false.
  2. If C has a [[BoundTargetFunction]] internal slot, then
    1. Let BC be C.[[BoundTargetFunction]].
    2. Return ? InstanceofOperator(O, BC).
  3. If Type(O) is not Object, return false.
  4. Let P be ? Get(C, "prototype").
  5. If Type(P) is not Object, throw a TypeError exception.
  6. Repeat,
    1. Set O to ? O.[[GetPrototypeOf]]().
    2. If O is null, return false.
    3. If SameValue(P, O) is true, return true.

7.3.22 SpeciesConstructor ( O, defaultConstructor )

The abstract operation SpeciesConstructor takes arguments O (an Object) and defaultConstructor (a constructor). It is used to retrieve the constructor that should be used to create new objects that are derived from O. defaultConstructor is the constructor to use if a constructor @@species property cannot be found starting from O. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let C be ? Get(O, "constructor").
  2. If C is undefined, return defaultConstructor.
  3. If Type(C) is not Object, throw a TypeError exception.
  4. Let S be ? Get(C, @@species).
  5. If S is either undefined or null, return defaultConstructor.
  6. If IsConstructor(S) is true, return S.
  7. Throw a TypeError exception.

7.3.23 EnumerableOwnPropertyNames ( O, kind )

The abstract operation EnumerableOwnPropertyNames takes arguments O (an Object) and kind (key, value, or key+value). It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let ownKeys be ? O.[[OwnPropertyKeys]]().
  2. Let properties be a new empty List.
  3. For each element key of ownKeys, do
    1. If Type(key) is String, then
      1. Let desc be ? O.[[GetOwnProperty]](key).
      2. If desc is not undefined and desc.[[Enumerable]] is true, then
        1. If kind is key, append key to properties.
        2. Else,
          1. Let value be ? Get(O, key).
          2. If kind is value, append value to properties.
          3. Else,
            1. Assert: kind is key+value.
            2. Let entry be ! CreateArrayFromListkey, value »).
            3. Append entry to properties.
  4. Return properties.

7.3.24 GetFunctionRealm ( obj )

The abstract operation GetFunctionRealm takes argument obj (a function object). It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If obj has a [[Realm]] internal slot, then
    1. Return obj.[[Realm]].
  2. If obj is a bound function exotic object, then
    1. Let target be obj.[[BoundTargetFunction]].
    2. Return ? GetFunctionRealm(target).
  3. If obj is a Proxy exotic object, then
    1. If obj.[[ProxyHandler]] is null, throw a TypeError exception.
    2. Let proxyTarget be obj.[[ProxyTarget]].
    3. Return ? GetFunctionRealm(proxyTarget).
  4. Return the current Realm Record.
Note

Step 4 will only be reached if obj is a non-standard function exotic object that does not have a [[Realm]] internal slot.

7.3.25 CopyDataProperties ( target, source, excludedItems )

The abstract operation CopyDataProperties takes arguments target (an Object), source (an ECMAScript language value), and excludedItems (a List of property keys). It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If source is undefined or null, return target.
  2. Let from be ! ToObject(source).
  3. Let keys be ? from.[[OwnPropertyKeys]]().
  4. For each element nextKey of keys, do
    1. Let excluded be false.
    2. For each element e of excludedItems, do
      1. If SameValue(e, nextKey) is true, then
        1. Set excluded to true.
    3. If excluded is false, then
      1. Let desc be ? from.[[GetOwnProperty]](nextKey).
      2. If desc is not undefined and desc.[[Enumerable]] is true, then
        1. Let propValue be ? Get(from, nextKey).
        2. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(target, nextKey, propValue).
  5. Return target.
Note

The target passed in here is always a newly created object which is not directly accessible in case of an error being thrown.

7.3.26 PrivateElementFind ( O, P )

The abstract operation PrivateElementFind takes arguments O (an Object) and P (a Private Name). It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If O.[[PrivateElements]] contains a PrivateElement whose [[Key]] is P, then
    1. Let entry be that PrivateElement.
    2. Return entry.
  2. Return empty.

7.3.27 PrivateFieldAdd ( O, P, value )

The abstract operation PrivateFieldAdd takes arguments O (an Object), P (a Private Name), and value (an ECMAScript language value). It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let entry be ! PrivateElementFind(O, P).
  2. If entry is not empty, throw a TypeError exception.
  3. Append PrivateElement { [[Key]]: P, [[Kind]]: field, [[Value]]: value } to O.[[PrivateElements]].

7.3.28 PrivateMethodOrAccessorAdd ( O, method )

The abstract operation PrivateMethodOrAccessorAdd takes arguments O (an Object) and method (a PrivateElement). It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Assert: method.[[Kind]] is either method or accessor.
  2. Let entry be ! PrivateElementFind(O, method.[[Key]]).
  3. If entry is not empty, throw a TypeError exception.
  4. Append method to O.[[PrivateElements]].
  5. NOTE: The values for private methods and accessors are shared across instances. This step does not create a new copy of the method or accessor.

7.3.29 PrivateGet ( O, P )

The abstract operation PrivateGet takes arguments O (an Object) and P (a Private Name). It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let entry be ! PrivateElementFind(O, P).
  2. If entry is empty, throw a TypeError exception.
  3. If entry.[[Kind]] is field or method, then
    1. Return entry.[[Value]].
  4. Assert: entry.[[Kind]] is accessor.
  5. If entry.[[Get]] is undefined, throw a TypeError exception.
  6. Let getter be entry.[[Get]].
  7. Return ? Call(getter, O).

7.3.30 PrivateSet ( O, P, value )

The abstract operation PrivateSet takes arguments O (an Object), P (a Private Name), and value (an ECMAScript language value). It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let entry be ! PrivateElementFind(O, P).
  2. If entry is empty, throw a TypeError exception.
  3. If entry.[[Kind]] is field, then
    1. Set entry.[[Value]] to value.
  4. Else if entry.[[Kind]] is method, then
    1. Throw a TypeError exception.
  5. Else,
    1. Assert: entry.[[Kind]] is accessor.
    2. If entry.[[Set]] is undefined, throw a TypeError exception.
    3. Let setter be entry.[[Set]].
    4. Perform ? Call(setter, O, « value »).

7.3.31 DefineField ( receiver, fieldRecord )

The abstract operation DefineField takes arguments receiver (an Object) and fieldRecord (a ClassFieldDefinition Record). It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let fieldName be fieldRecord.[[Name]].
  2. Let initializer be fieldRecord.[[Initializer]].
  3. If initializer is not empty, then
    1. Let initValue be ? Call(initializer, receiver).
  4. Else, let initValue be undefined.
  5. If fieldName is a Private Name, then
    1. Perform ? PrivateFieldAdd(receiver, fieldName, initValue).
  6. Else,
    1. Assert: ! IsPropertyKey(fieldName) is true.
    2. Perform ? CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(receiver, fieldName, initValue).

7.3.32 InitializeInstanceElements ( O, constructor )

The abstract operation InitializeInstanceElements takes arguments O (an Object) and constructor (an ECMAScript function object). It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let methods be the value of constructor.[[PrivateMethods]].
  2. For each PrivateElement method of methods, do
    1. Perform ? PrivateMethodOrAccessorAdd(O, method).
  3. Let fields be the value of constructor.[[Fields]].
  4. For each element fieldRecord of fields, do
    1. Perform ? DefineField(O, fieldRecord).

7.4 Operations on Iterator Objects

See Common Iteration Interfaces (27.1).

7.4.1 GetIterator ( obj [ , hint [ , method ] ] )

The abstract operation GetIterator takes argument obj and optional arguments hint (sync or async) and method. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If hint is not present, set hint to sync.
  2. If method is not present, then
    1. If hint is async, then
      1. Set method to ? GetMethod(obj, @@asyncIterator).
      2. If method is undefined, then
        1. Let syncMethod be ? GetMethod(obj, @@iterator).
        2. Let syncIteratorRecord be ? GetIterator(obj, sync, syncMethod).
        3. Return ! CreateAsyncFromSyncIterator(syncIteratorRecord).
    2. Otherwise, set method to ? GetMethod(obj, @@iterator).
  3. Let iterator be ? Call(method, obj).
  4. If Type(iterator) is not Object, throw a TypeError exception.
  5. Let nextMethod be ? GetV(iterator, "next").
  6. Let iteratorRecord be the Record { [[Iterator]]: iterator, [[NextMethod]]: nextMethod, [[Done]]: false }.
  7. Return iteratorRecord.

7.4.2 IteratorNext ( iteratorRecord [ , value ] )

The abstract operation IteratorNext takes argument iteratorRecord and optional argument value. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If value is not present, then
    1. Let result be ? Call(iteratorRecord.[[NextMethod]], iteratorRecord.[[Iterator]]).
  2. Else,
    1. Let result be ? Call(iteratorRecord.[[NextMethod]], iteratorRecord.[[Iterator]], « value »).
  3. If Type(result) is not Object, throw a TypeError exception.
  4. Return result.

7.4.3 IteratorComplete ( iterResult )

The abstract operation IteratorComplete takes argument iterResult (an Object). It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Return ! ToBoolean(? Get(iterResult, "done")).

7.4.4 IteratorValue ( iterResult )

The abstract operation IteratorValue takes argument iterResult (an Object). It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Return ? Get(iterResult, "value").

7.4.5 IteratorStep ( iteratorRecord )

The abstract operation IteratorStep takes argument iteratorRecord. It requests the next value from iteratorRecord.[[Iterator]] by calling iteratorRecord.[[NextMethod]] and returns either false indicating that the iterator has reached its end or the IteratorResult object if a next value is available. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let result be ? IteratorNext(iteratorRecord).
  2. Let done be ? IteratorComplete(result).
  3. If done is true, return false.
  4. Return result.

7.4.6 IteratorClose ( iteratorRecord, completion )

The abstract operation IteratorClose takes arguments iteratorRecord and completion (a Completion Record). It is used to notify an iterator that it should perform any actions it would normally perform when it has reached its completed state. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Assert: Type(iteratorRecord.[[Iterator]]) is Object.
  2. Let iterator be iteratorRecord.[[Iterator]].
  3. Let innerResult be GetMethod(iterator, "return").
  4. If innerResult.[[Type]] is normal, then
    1. Let return be innerResult.[[Value]].
    2. If return is undefined, return Completion(completion).
    3. Set innerResult to Call(return, iterator).
  5. If completion.[[Type]] is throw, return Completion(completion).
  6. If innerResult.[[Type]] is throw, return Completion(innerResult).
  7. If Type(innerResult.[[Value]]) is not Object, throw a TypeError exception.
  8. Return Completion(completion).

7.4.7 IfAbruptCloseIterator ( value, iteratorRecord )

IfAbruptCloseIterator is a shorthand for a sequence of algorithm steps that use an Iterator Record. An algorithm step of the form:

  1. IfAbruptCloseIterator(value, iteratorRecord).

means the same thing as:

  1. If value is an abrupt completion, return ? IteratorClose(iteratorRecord, value).
  2. Else if value is a Completion Record, set value to value.[[Value]].

7.4.8 AsyncIteratorClose ( iteratorRecord, completion )

The abstract operation AsyncIteratorClose takes arguments iteratorRecord and completion (a Completion Record). It is used to notify an async iterator that it should perform any actions it would normally perform when it has reached its completed state. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Assert: Type(iteratorRecord.[[Iterator]]) is Object.
  2. Let iterator be iteratorRecord.[[Iterator]].
  3. Let innerResult be GetMethod(iterator, "return").
  4. If innerResult.[[Type]] is normal, then
    1. Let return be innerResult.[[Value]].
    2. If return is undefined, return Completion(completion).
    3. Set innerResult to Call(return, iterator).
    4. If innerResult.[[Type]] is normal, set innerResult to Await(innerResult.[[Value]]).
  5. If completion.[[Type]] is throw, return Completion(completion).
  6. If innerResult.[[Type]] is throw, return Completion(innerResult).
  7. If Type(innerResult.[[Value]]) is not Object, throw a TypeError exception.
  8. Return Completion(completion).

7.4.9 CreateIterResultObject ( value, done )

The abstract operation CreateIterResultObject takes arguments value and done (a Boolean). It creates an object that conforms to the IteratorResult interface. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let obj be ! OrdinaryObjectCreate(%Object.prototype%).
  2. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(obj, "value", value).
  3. Perform ! CreateDataPropertyOrThrow(obj, "done", done).
  4. Return obj.

7.4.10 CreateListIteratorRecord ( list )

The abstract operation CreateListIteratorRecord takes argument list. It creates an Iterator (27.1.1.2) object record whose next method returns the successive elements of list. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let closure be a new Abstract Closure with no parameters that captures list and performs the following steps when called:
    1. For each element E of list, do
      1. Perform ? Yield(E).
    2. Return undefined.
  2. Let iterator be ! CreateIteratorFromClosure(closure, empty, %IteratorPrototype%).
  3. Return Record { [[Iterator]]: iterator, [[NextMethod]]: %GeneratorFunction.prototype.prototype.next%, [[Done]]: false }.
Note

The list iterator object is never directly accessible to ECMAScript code.

7.4.11 IterableToList ( items [ , method ] )

The abstract operation IterableToList takes argument items and optional argument method. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. If method is present, then
    1. Let iteratorRecord be ? GetIterator(items, sync, method).
  2. Else,
    1. Let iteratorRecord be ? GetIterator(items, sync).
  3. Let values be a new empty List.
  4. Let next be true.
  5. Repeat, while next is not false,
    1. Set next to ? IteratorStep(iteratorRecord).
    2. If next is not false, then
      1. Let nextValue be ? IteratorValue(next).
      2. Append nextValue to the end of the List values.
  6. Return values.