26 Managing Memory

26.1 WeakRef Objects

A WeakRef is an object that is used to refer to a target object without preserving it from garbage collection. WeakRefs can be dereferenced to allow access to the target object, if the target object hasn't been reclaimed by garbage collection.

26.1.1 The WeakRef Constructor

The WeakRef constructor:

  • is %WeakRef%.
  • is the initial value of the "WeakRef" property of the global object.
  • creates and initializes a new WeakRef when called as a constructor.
  • is not intended to be called as a function and will throw an exception when called in that manner.
  • may be used as the value in an extends clause of a class definition. Subclass constructors that intend to inherit the specified WeakRef behaviour must include a super call to the WeakRef constructor to create and initialize the subclass instance with the internal state necessary to support the WeakRef.prototype built-in methods.

26.1.1.1 WeakRef ( target )

This function performs the following steps when called:

  1. If NewTarget is undefined, throw a TypeError exception.
  2. If target is not an Object, throw a TypeError exception.
  3. Let weakRef be ? OrdinaryCreateFromConstructor(NewTarget, "%WeakRef.prototype%", « [[WeakRefTarget]] »).
  4. Perform AddToKeptObjects(target).
  5. Set weakRef.[[WeakRefTarget]] to target.
  6. Return weakRef.

26.1.2 Properties of the WeakRef Constructor

The WeakRef constructor:

  • has a [[Prototype]] internal slot whose value is %Function.prototype%.
  • has the following properties:

26.1.2.1 WeakRef.prototype

The initial value of WeakRef.prototype is the WeakRef prototype object.

This property has the attributes { [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: false }.

26.1.3 Properties of the WeakRef Prototype Object

The WeakRef prototype object:

  • is %WeakRef.prototype%.
  • has a [[Prototype]] internal slot whose value is %Object.prototype%.
  • is an ordinary object.
  • does not have a [[WeakRefTarget]] internal slot.

26.1.3.1 WeakRef.prototype.constructor

The initial value of WeakRef.prototype.constructor is %WeakRef%.

This property has the attributes { [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: true }.

26.1.3.2 WeakRef.prototype.deref ( )

This method performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let weakRef be the this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(weakRef, [[WeakRefTarget]]).
  3. Return WeakRefDeref(weakRef).
Note

If the WeakRef returns a target Object that is not undefined, then this target object should not be garbage collected until the current execution of ECMAScript code has completed. The AddToKeptObjects operation makes sure read consistency is maintained.

let target = { foo() {} };
let weakRef = new WeakRef(target);

// ... later ...

if (weakRef.deref()) {
  weakRef.deref().foo();
}

In the above example, if the first deref does not evaluate to undefined then the second deref cannot either.

26.1.3.3 WeakRef.prototype [ @@toStringTag ]

The initial value of the @@toStringTag property is the String value "WeakRef".

This property has the attributes { [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: true }.

26.1.4 WeakRef Abstract Operations

26.1.4.1 WeakRefDeref ( weakRef )

The abstract operation WeakRefDeref takes argument weakRef (a WeakRef) and returns an ECMAScript language value. It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let target be weakRef.[[WeakRefTarget]].
  2. If target is not empty, then
    1. Perform AddToKeptObjects(target).
    2. Return target.
  3. Return undefined.
Note

This abstract operation is defined separately from WeakRef.prototype.deref strictly to make it possible to succinctly define liveness.

26.1.5 Properties of WeakRef Instances

WeakRef instances are ordinary objects that inherit properties from the WeakRef prototype. WeakRef instances also have a [[WeakRefTarget]] internal slot.

26.2 FinalizationRegistry Objects

A FinalizationRegistry is an object that manages registration and unregistration of cleanup operations that are performed when target objects are garbage collected.

26.2.1 The FinalizationRegistry Constructor

The FinalizationRegistry constructor:

  • is %FinalizationRegistry%.
  • is the initial value of the "FinalizationRegistry" property of the global object.
  • creates and initializes a new FinalizationRegistry when called as a constructor.
  • is not intended to be called as a function and will throw an exception when called in that manner.
  • may be used as the value in an extends clause of a class definition. Subclass constructors that intend to inherit the specified FinalizationRegistry behaviour must include a super call to the FinalizationRegistry constructor to create and initialize the subclass instance with the internal state necessary to support the FinalizationRegistry.prototype built-in methods.

26.2.1.1 FinalizationRegistry ( cleanupCallback )

This function performs the following steps when called:

  1. If NewTarget is undefined, throw a TypeError exception.
  2. If IsCallable(cleanupCallback) is false, throw a TypeError exception.
  3. Let finalizationRegistry be ? OrdinaryCreateFromConstructor(NewTarget, "%FinalizationRegistry.prototype%", « [[Realm]], [[CleanupCallback]], [[Cells]] »).
  4. Let fn be the active function object.
  5. Set finalizationRegistry.[[Realm]] to fn.[[Realm]].
  6. Set finalizationRegistry.[[CleanupCallback]] to HostMakeJobCallback(cleanupCallback).
  7. Set finalizationRegistry.[[Cells]] to a new empty List.
  8. Return finalizationRegistry.

26.2.2 Properties of the FinalizationRegistry Constructor

The FinalizationRegistry constructor:

  • has a [[Prototype]] internal slot whose value is %Function.prototype%.
  • has the following properties:

26.2.2.1 FinalizationRegistry.prototype

The initial value of FinalizationRegistry.prototype is the FinalizationRegistry prototype object.

This property has the attributes { [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: false }.

26.2.3 Properties of the FinalizationRegistry Prototype Object

The FinalizationRegistry prototype object:

  • is %FinalizationRegistry.prototype%.
  • has a [[Prototype]] internal slot whose value is %Object.prototype%.
  • is an ordinary object.
  • does not have [[Cells]] and [[CleanupCallback]] internal slots.

26.2.3.1 FinalizationRegistry.prototype.constructor

The initial value of FinalizationRegistry.prototype.constructor is %FinalizationRegistry%.

26.2.3.2 FinalizationRegistry.prototype.register ( target, heldValue [ , unregisterToken ] )

This method performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let finalizationRegistry be the this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(finalizationRegistry, [[Cells]]).
  3. If target is not an Object, throw a TypeError exception.
  4. If SameValue(target, heldValue) is true, throw a TypeError exception.
  5. If unregisterToken is not an Object, then
    1. If unregisterToken is not undefined, throw a TypeError exception.
    2. Set unregisterToken to empty.
  6. Let cell be the Record { [[WeakRefTarget]]: target, [[HeldValue]]: heldValue, [[UnregisterToken]]: unregisterToken }.
  7. Append cell to finalizationRegistry.[[Cells]].
  8. Return undefined.
Note

Based on the algorithms and definitions in this specification, cell.[[HeldValue]] is live when cell is in finalizationRegistry.[[Cells]]; however, this does not necessarily mean that cell.[[UnregisterToken]] or cell.[[Target]] are live. For example, registering an object with itself as its unregister token would not keep the object alive forever.

26.2.3.3 FinalizationRegistry.prototype.unregister ( unregisterToken )

This method performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let finalizationRegistry be the this value.
  2. Perform ? RequireInternalSlot(finalizationRegistry, [[Cells]]).
  3. If unregisterToken is not an Object, throw a TypeError exception.
  4. Let removed be false.
  5. For each Record { [[WeakRefTarget]], [[HeldValue]], [[UnregisterToken]] } cell of finalizationRegistry.[[Cells]], do
    1. If cell.[[UnregisterToken]] is not empty and SameValue(cell.[[UnregisterToken]], unregisterToken) is true, then
      1. Remove cell from finalizationRegistry.[[Cells]].
      2. Set removed to true.
  6. Return removed.

26.2.3.4 FinalizationRegistry.prototype [ @@toStringTag ]

The initial value of the @@toStringTag property is the String value "FinalizationRegistry".

This property has the attributes { [[Writable]]: false, [[Enumerable]]: false, [[Configurable]]: true }.

26.2.4 Properties of FinalizationRegistry Instances

FinalizationRegistry instances are ordinary objects that inherit properties from the FinalizationRegistry prototype. FinalizationRegistry instances also have [[Cells]] and [[CleanupCallback]] internal slots.