29 Memory Model

The memory consistency model, or memory model, specifies the possible orderings of Shared Data Block events, arising via accessing TypedArray instances backed by a SharedArrayBuffer and via methods on the Atomics object. When the program has no data races (defined below), the ordering of events appears as sequentially consistent, i.e., as an interleaving of actions from each agent. When the program has data races, shared memory operations may appear sequentially inconsistent. For example, programs may exhibit causality-violating behaviour and other astonishments. These astonishments arise from compiler transforms and the design of CPUs (e.g., out-of-order execution and speculation). The memory model defines both the precise conditions under which a program exhibits sequentially consistent behaviour as well as the possible values read from data races. To wit, there is no undefined behaviour.

The memory model is defined as relational constraints on events introduced by abstract operations on SharedArrayBuffer or by methods on the Atomics object during an evaluation.

Note

This section provides an axiomatic model on events introduced by the abstract operations on SharedArrayBuffers. It bears stressing that the model is not expressible algorithmically, unlike the rest of this specification. The nondeterministic introduction of events by abstract operations is the interface between the operational semantics of ECMAScript evaluation and the axiomatic semantics of the memory model. The semantics of these events is defined by considering graphs of all events in an evaluation. These are neither Static Semantics nor Runtime Semantics. There is no demonstrated algorithmic implementation, but instead a set of constraints that determine if a particular event graph is allowed or disallowed.

29.1 Memory Model Fundamentals

Shared memory accesses (reads and writes) are divided into two groups, atomic accesses and data accesses, defined below. Atomic accesses are sequentially consistent, i.e., there is a strict total ordering of events agreed upon by all agents in an agent cluster. Non-atomic accesses do not have a strict total ordering agreed upon by all agents, i.e., unordered.

Note 1

No orderings weaker than sequentially consistent and stronger than unordered, such as release-acquire, are supported.

A Shared Data Block event is either a ReadSharedMemory, WriteSharedMemory, or ReadModifyWriteSharedMemory Record.

Table 85: ReadSharedMemory Event Fields
Field Name Value Meaning
[[Order]] SeqCst or Unordered The weakest ordering guaranteed by the memory model for the event.
[[NoTear]] a Boolean Whether this event is allowed to read from multiple write events on equal range as this event.
[[Block]] a Shared Data Block The block the event operates on.
[[ByteIndex]] a non-negative integer The byte address of the read in [[Block]].
[[ElementSize]] a non-negative integer The size of the read.
Table 86: WriteSharedMemory Event Fields
Field Name Value Meaning
[[Order]] SeqCst, Unordered, or Init The weakest ordering guaranteed by the memory model for the event.
[[NoTear]] a Boolean Whether this event is allowed to be read from multiple read events with equal range as this event.
[[Block]] a Shared Data Block The block the event operates on.
[[ByteIndex]] a non-negative integer The byte address of the write in [[Block]].
[[ElementSize]] a non-negative integer The size of the write.
[[Payload]] a List The List of byte values to be read by other events.
Table 87: ReadModifyWriteSharedMemory Event Fields
Field Name Value Meaning
[[Order]] SeqCst Read-modify-write events are always sequentially consistent.
[[NoTear]] true Read-modify-write events cannot tear.
[[Block]] a Shared Data Block The block the event operates on.
[[ByteIndex]] a non-negative integer The byte address of the read-modify-write in [[Block]].
[[ElementSize]] a non-negative integer The size of the read-modify-write.
[[Payload]] a List The List of byte values to be passed to [[ModifyOp]].
[[ModifyOp]] a read-modify-write modification function An abstract closure that returns a modified List of byte values from a read List of byte values and [[Payload]].

These events are introduced by abstract operations or by methods on the Atomics object.

Some operations may also introduce Synchronize events. A Synchronize event has no fields, and exists purely to directly constrain the permitted orderings of other events.

In addition to Shared Data Block and Synchronize events, there are host-specific events.

Let the range of a ReadSharedMemory, WriteSharedMemory, or ReadModifyWriteSharedMemory event be the Set of contiguous integers from its [[ByteIndex]] to [[ByteIndex]] + [[ElementSize]] - 1. Two events' ranges are equal when the events have the same [[Block]], and the ranges are element-wise equal. Two events' ranges are overlapping when the events have the same [[Block]], the ranges are not equal and their intersection is non-empty. Two events' ranges are disjoint when the events do not have the same [[Block]] or their ranges are neither equal nor overlapping.

Note 2

Examples of host-specific synchronizing events that should be accounted for are: sending a SharedArrayBuffer from one agent to another (e.g., by postMessage in a browser), starting and stopping agents, and communicating within the agent cluster via channels other than shared memory. It is assumed those events are appended to agent-order during evaluation like the other SharedArrayBuffer events.

Events are ordered within candidate executions by the relations defined below.

29.2 Agent Events Records

An Agent Events Record is a Record with the following fields.

Table 88: Agent Events Record Fields
Field Name Value Meaning
[[AgentSignifier]] a value that admits equality testing The agent whose evaluation resulted in this ordering.
[[EventList]] a List of events Events are appended to the list during evaluation.
[[AgentSynchronizesWith]] a List of pairs of Synchronize events Synchronize relationships introduced by the operational semantics.

29.3 Chosen Value Records

A Chosen Value Record is a Record with the following fields.

Table 89: Chosen Value Record Fields
Field Name Value Meaning
[[Event]] a Shared Data Block event The ReadSharedMemory or ReadModifyWriteSharedMemory event that was introduced for this chosen value.
[[ChosenValue]] a List of byte values The bytes that were nondeterministically chosen during evaluation.

29.4 Candidate Executions

A candidate execution of the evaluation of an agent cluster is a Record with the following fields.

Table 90: Candidate Execution Record Fields
Field Name Value Meaning
[[EventsRecords]] a List of Agent Events Records Maps an agent to Lists of events appended during the evaluation.
[[ChosenValues]] a List of Chosen Value Records Maps ReadSharedMemory or ReadModifyWriteSharedMemory events to the List of byte values chosen during the evaluation.
[[AgentOrder]] an agent-order Relation Defined below.
[[ReadsBytesFrom]] a reads-bytes-from mathematical function Defined below.
[[ReadsFrom]] a reads-from Relation Defined below.
[[HostSynchronizesWith]] a host-synchronizes-with Relation Defined below.
[[SynchronizesWith]] a synchronizes-with Relation Defined below.
[[HappensBefore]] a happens-before Relation Defined below.

An empty candidate execution is a candidate execution Record whose fields are empty Lists and Relations.

29.5 Abstract Operations for the Memory Model

29.5.1 EventSet ( execution )

The abstract operation EventSet takes argument execution (a candidate execution). It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let events be an empty Set.
  2. For each Agent Events Record aer of execution.[[EventsRecords]], do
    1. For each event E of aer.[[EventList]], do
      1. Add E to events.
  3. Return events.

29.5.2 SharedDataBlockEventSet ( execution )

The abstract operation SharedDataBlockEventSet takes argument execution (a candidate execution). It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let events be an empty Set.
  2. For each event E of EventSet(execution), do
    1. If E is a ReadSharedMemory, WriteSharedMemory, or ReadModifyWriteSharedMemory event, add E to events.
  3. Return events.

29.5.3 HostEventSet ( execution )

The abstract operation HostEventSet takes argument execution (a candidate execution). It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let events be an empty Set.
  2. For each event E of EventSet(execution), do
    1. If E is not in SharedDataBlockEventSet(execution), add E to events.
  3. Return events.

29.5.4 ComposeWriteEventBytes ( execution, byteIndex, Ws )

The abstract operation ComposeWriteEventBytes takes arguments execution (a candidate execution), byteIndex (a non-negative integer), and Ws (a List of WriteSharedMemory or ReadModifyWriteSharedMemory events). It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let byteLocation be byteIndex.
  2. Let bytesRead be a new empty List.
  3. For each element W of Ws, do
    1. Assert: W has byteLocation in its range.
    2. Let payloadIndex be byteLocation - W.[[ByteIndex]].
    3. If W is a WriteSharedMemory event, then
      1. Let byte be W.[[Payload]][payloadIndex].
    4. Else,
      1. Assert: W is a ReadModifyWriteSharedMemory event.
      2. Let bytes be ValueOfReadEvent(execution, W).
      3. Let bytesModified be W.[[ModifyOp]](bytes, W.[[Payload]]).
      4. Let byte be bytesModified[payloadIndex].
    5. Append byte to bytesRead.
    6. Set byteLocation to byteLocation + 1.
  4. Return bytesRead.
Note 1

The read-modify-write modification [[ModifyOp]] is given by the function properties on the Atomics object that introduce ReadModifyWriteSharedMemory events.

Note 2

This abstract operation composes a List of write events into a List of byte values. It is used in the event semantics of ReadSharedMemory and ReadModifyWriteSharedMemory events.

29.5.5 ValueOfReadEvent ( execution, R )

The abstract operation ValueOfReadEvent takes arguments execution (a candidate execution) and R (a ReadSharedMemory or ReadModifyWriteSharedMemory event). It performs the following steps when called:

  1. Let Ws be execution.[[ReadsBytesFrom]](R).
  2. Assert: Ws is a List of WriteSharedMemory or ReadModifyWriteSharedMemory events with length equal to R.[[ElementSize]].
  3. Return ComposeWriteEventBytes(execution, R.[[ByteIndex]], Ws).

29.6 Relations of Candidate Executions

29.6.1 agent-order

For a candidate execution execution, execution.[[AgentOrder]] is a Relation on events that satisfies the following.

  • For each pair (E, D) in EventSet(execution), (E, D) is in execution.[[AgentOrder]] if there is some Agent Events Record aer in execution.[[EventsRecords]] such that E and D are in aer.[[EventList]] and E is before D in List order of aer.[[EventList]].
Note

Each agent introduces events in a per-agent strict total order during the evaluation. This is the union of those strict total orders.

29.6.2 reads-bytes-from

For a candidate execution execution, execution.[[ReadsBytesFrom]] is a mathematical function mapping events in SharedDataBlockEventSet(execution) to Lists of events in SharedDataBlockEventSet(execution) that satisfies the following conditions.

29.6.3 reads-from

For a candidate execution execution, execution.[[ReadsFrom]] is the least Relation on events that satisfies the following.

  • For each pair (R, W) in SharedDataBlockEventSet(execution), (R, W) is in execution.[[ReadsFrom]] if W is in execution.[[ReadsBytesFrom]](R).

29.6.4 host-synchronizes-with

For a candidate execution execution, execution.[[HostSynchronizesWith]] is a host-provided strict partial order on host-specific events that satisfies at least the following.

  • If (E, D) is in execution.[[HostSynchronizesWith]], E and D are in HostEventSet(execution).
  • There is no cycle in the union of execution.[[HostSynchronizesWith]] and execution.[[AgentOrder]].
Note 1

For two host-specific events E and D, E host-synchronizes-with D implies E happens-before D.

Note 2

The host-synchronizes-with relation allows the host to provide additional synchronization mechanisms, such as postMessage between HTML workers.

29.6.5 synchronizes-with

For a candidate execution execution, execution.[[SynchronizesWith]] is the least Relation on events that satisfies the following.

  • For each pair (R, W) in execution.[[ReadsFrom]], (W, R) is in execution.[[SynchronizesWith]] if R.[[Order]] is SeqCst, W.[[Order]] is SeqCst, and R and W have equal ranges.
  • For each element eventsRecord of execution.[[EventsRecords]], the following is true.
    • For each pair (S, Sw) in eventsRecord.[[AgentSynchronizesWith]], (S, Sw) is in execution.[[SynchronizesWith]].
  • For each pair (E, D) in execution.[[HostSynchronizesWith]], (E, D) is in execution.[[SynchronizesWith]].
Note 1

Owing to convention, write events synchronizes-with read events, instead of read events synchronizes-with write events.

Note 2

Init events do not participate in synchronizes-with, and are instead constrained directly by happens-before.

Note 3

Not all SeqCst events related by reads-from are related by synchronizes-with. Only events that also have equal ranges are related by synchronizes-with.

Note 4

For Shared Data Block events R and W such that W synchronizes-with R, R may reads-from other writes than W.

29.6.6 happens-before

For a candidate execution execution, execution.[[HappensBefore]] is the least Relation on events that satisfies the following.

  • For each pair (E, D) in execution.[[AgentOrder]], (E, D) is in execution.[[HappensBefore]].
  • For each pair (E, D) in execution.[[SynchronizesWith]], (E, D) is in execution.[[HappensBefore]].
  • For each pair (E, D) in SharedDataBlockEventSet(execution), (E, D) is in execution.[[HappensBefore]] if E.[[Order]] is Init and E and D have overlapping ranges.
  • For each pair (E, D) in EventSet(execution), (E, D) is in execution.[[HappensBefore]] if there is an event F such that the pairs (E, F) and (F, D) are in execution.[[HappensBefore]].
Note

Because happens-before is a superset of agent-order, candidate executions are consistent with the single-thread evaluation semantics of ECMAScript.

29.7 Properties of Valid Executions

29.7.1 Valid Chosen Reads

A candidate execution execution has valid chosen reads if the following algorithm returns true.

  1. For each ReadSharedMemory or ReadModifyWriteSharedMemory event R of SharedDataBlockEventSet(execution), do
    1. Let chosenValueRecord be the element of execution.[[ChosenValues]] whose [[Event]] field is R.
    2. Let chosenValue be chosenValueRecord.[[ChosenValue]].
    3. Let readValue be ValueOfReadEvent(execution, R).
    4. Let chosenLen be the number of elements of chosenValue.
    5. Let readLen be the number of elements of readValue.
    6. If chosenLenreadLen, then
      1. Return false.
    7. If chosenValue[i] ≠ readValue[i] for any integer value i in the range 0 through chosenLen, exclusive, then
      1. Return false.
  2. Return true.

29.7.2 Coherent Reads

A candidate execution execution has coherent reads if the following algorithm returns true.

  1. For each ReadSharedMemory or ReadModifyWriteSharedMemory event R of SharedDataBlockEventSet(execution), do
    1. Let Ws be execution.[[ReadsBytesFrom]](R).
    2. Let byteLocation be R.[[ByteIndex]].
    3. For each element W of Ws, do
      1. If (R, W) is in execution.[[HappensBefore]], then
        1. Return false.
      2. If there is a WriteSharedMemory or ReadModifyWriteSharedMemory event V that has byteLocation in its range such that the pairs (W, V) and (V, R) are in execution.[[HappensBefore]], then
        1. Return false.
      3. Set byteLocation to byteLocation + 1.
  2. Return true.

29.7.3 Tear Free Reads

A candidate execution execution has tear free reads if the following algorithm returns true.

  1. For each ReadSharedMemory or ReadModifyWriteSharedMemory event R of SharedDataBlockEventSet(execution), do
    1. If R.[[NoTear]] is true, then
      1. Assert: The remainder of dividing R.[[ByteIndex]] by R.[[ElementSize]] is 0.
      2. For each event W such that (R, W) is in execution.[[ReadsFrom]] and W.[[NoTear]] is true, do
        1. If R and W have equal ranges, and there is an event V such that V and W have equal ranges, V.[[NoTear]] is true, W is not V, and (R, V) is in execution.[[ReadsFrom]], then
          1. Return false.
  2. Return true.
Note

An event's [[NoTear]] field is true when that event was introduced via accessing an integer TypedArray, and false when introduced via accessing a floating point TypedArray or DataView.

Intuitively, this requirement says when a memory range is accessed in an aligned fashion via an integer TypedArray, a single write event on that range must "win" when in a data race with other write events with equal ranges. More precisely, this requirement says an aligned read event cannot read a value composed of bytes from multiple, different write events all with equal ranges. It is possible, however, for an aligned read event to read from multiple write events with overlapping ranges.

29.7.4 Sequentially Consistent Atomics

For a candidate execution execution, memory-order is a strict total order of all events in EventSet(execution) that satisfies the following.

  • For each pair (E, D) in execution.[[HappensBefore]], (E, D) is in memory-order.
  • For each pair (R, W) in execution.[[ReadsFrom]], there is no WriteSharedMemory or ReadModifyWriteSharedMemory event V in SharedDataBlockEventSet(execution) such that V.[[Order]] is SeqCst, the pairs (W, V) and (V, R) are in memory-order, and any of the following conditions are true.

    • The pair (W, R) is in execution.[[SynchronizesWith]], and V and R have equal ranges.
    • The pairs (W, R) and (V, R) are in execution.[[HappensBefore]], W.[[Order]] is SeqCst, and W and V have equal ranges.
    • The pairs (W, R) and (W, V) are in execution.[[HappensBefore]], R.[[Order]] is SeqCst, and V and R have equal ranges.
    Note 1

    This clause additionally constrains SeqCst events on equal ranges.

  • For each WriteSharedMemory or ReadModifyWriteSharedMemory event W in SharedDataBlockEventSet(execution), if W.[[Order]] is SeqCst, then it is not the case that there is an infinite number of ReadSharedMemory or ReadModifyWriteSharedMemory events in SharedDataBlockEventSet(execution) with equal range that is memory-order before W.

    Note 2

    This clause together with the forward progress guarantee on agents ensure the liveness condition that SeqCst writes become visible to SeqCst reads with equal range in finite time.

A candidate execution has sequentially consistent atomics if a memory-order exists.

Note 3

While memory-order includes all events in EventSet(execution), those that are not constrained by happens-before or synchronizes-with are allowed to occur anywhere in the order.

29.7.5 Valid Executions

A candidate execution execution is a valid execution (or simply an execution) if all of the following are true.

  • The host provides a host-synchronizes-with Relation for execution.[[HostSynchronizesWith]].
  • execution.[[HappensBefore]] is a strict partial order.
  • execution has valid chosen reads.
  • execution has coherent reads.
  • execution has tear free reads.
  • execution has sequentially consistent atomics.

All programs have at least one valid execution.

29.8 Races

For an execution execution, two events E and D in SharedDataBlockEventSet(execution) are in a race if the following algorithm returns true.

  1. If E is not D, then
    1. If the pairs (E, D) and (D, E) are not in execution.[[HappensBefore]], then
      1. If E and D are both WriteSharedMemory or ReadModifyWriteSharedMemory events and E and D do not have disjoint ranges, then
        1. Return true.
      2. If either (E, D) or (D, E) is in execution.[[ReadsFrom]], then
        1. Return true.
  2. Return false.

29.9 Data Races

For an execution execution, two events E and D in SharedDataBlockEventSet(execution) are in a data race if the following algorithm returns true.

  1. If E and D are in a race in execution, then
    1. If E.[[Order]] is not SeqCst or D.[[Order]] is not SeqCst, then
      1. Return true.
    2. If E and D have overlapping ranges, then
      1. Return true.
  2. Return false.

29.10 Data Race Freedom

An execution execution is data race free if there are no two events in SharedDataBlockEventSet(execution) that are in a data race.

A program is data race free if all its executions are data race free.

The memory model guarantees sequential consistency of all events for data race free programs.

29.11 Shared Memory Guidelines

Note 1

The following are guidelines for ECMAScript programmers working with shared memory.

We recommend programs be kept data race free, i.e., make it so that it is impossible for there to be concurrent non-atomic operations on the same memory location. Data race free programs have interleaving semantics where each step in the evaluation semantics of each agent are interleaved with each other. For data race free programs, it is not necessary to understand the details of the memory model. The details are unlikely to build intuition that will help one to better write ECMAScript.

More generally, even if a program is not data race free it may have predictable behaviour, so long as atomic operations are not involved in any data races and the operations that race all have the same access size. The simplest way to arrange for atomics not to be involved in races is to ensure that different memory cells are used by atomic and non-atomic operations and that atomic accesses of different sizes are not used to access the same cells at the same time. Effectively, the program should treat shared memory as strongly typed as much as possible. One still cannot depend on the ordering and timing of non-atomic accesses that race, but if memory is treated as strongly typed the racing accesses will not "tear" (bits of their values will not be mixed).

Note 2

The following are guidelines for ECMAScript implementers writing compiler transformations for programs using shared memory.

It is desirable to allow most program transformations that are valid in a single-agent setting in a multi-agent setting, to ensure that the performance of each agent in a multi-agent program is as good as it would be in a single-agent setting. Frequently these transformations are hard to judge. We outline some rules about program transformations that are intended to be taken as normative (in that they are implied by the memory model or stronger than what the memory model implies) but which are likely not exhaustive. These rules are intended to apply to program transformations that precede the introductions of the events that make up the agent-order.

Let an agent-order slice be the subset of the agent-order pertaining to a single agent.

Let possible read values of a read event be the set of all values of ValueOfReadEvent for that event across all valid executions.

Any transformation of an agent-order slice that is valid in the absence of shared memory is valid in the presence of shared memory, with the following exceptions.

  • Atomics are carved in stone: Program transformations must not cause the SeqCst events in an agent-order slice to be reordered with its Unordered operations, nor its SeqCst operations to be reordered with each other, nor may a program transformation remove a SeqCst operation from the agent-order.

    (In practice, the prohibition on reorderings forces a compiler to assume that every SeqCst operation is a synchronization and included in the final memory-order, which it would usually have to assume anyway in the absence of inter-agent program analysis. It also forces the compiler to assume that every call where the callee's effects on the memory-order are unknown may contain SeqCst operations.)

  • Reads must be stable: Any given shared memory read must only observe a single value in an execution.

    (For example, if what is semantically a single read in the program is executed multiple times then the program is subsequently allowed to observe only one of the values read. A transformation known as rematerialization can violate this rule.)

  • Writes must be stable: All observable writes to shared memory must follow from program semantics in an execution.

    (For example, a transformation may not introduce certain observable writes, such as by using read-modify-write operations on a larger location to write a smaller datum, writing a value to memory that the program could not have written, or writing a just-read value back to the location it was read from, if that location could have been overwritten by another agent after the read.)

  • Possible read values must be nonempty: Program transformations cannot cause the possible read values of a shared memory read to become empty.

    (Counterintuitively, this rule in effect restricts transformations on writes, because writes have force in memory model insofar as to be read by read events. For example, writes may be moved and coalesced and sometimes reordered between two SeqCst operations, but the transformation may not remove every write that updates a location; some write must be preserved.)

Examples of transformations that remain valid are: merging multiple non-atomic reads from the same location, reordering non-atomic reads, introducing speculative non-atomic reads, merging multiple non-atomic writes to the same location, reordering non-atomic writes to different locations, and hoisting non-atomic reads out of loops even if that affects termination. Note in general that aliased TypedArrays make it hard to prove that locations are different.

Note 3

The following are guidelines for ECMAScript implementers generating machine code for shared memory accesses.

For architectures with memory models no weaker than those of ARM or Power, non-atomic stores and loads may be compiled to bare stores and loads on the target architecture. Atomic stores and loads may be compiled down to instructions that guarantee sequential consistency. If no such instructions exist, memory barriers are to be employed, such as placing barriers on both sides of a bare store or load. Read-modify-write operations may be compiled to read-modify-write instructions on the target architecture, such as LOCK-prefixed instructions on x86, load-exclusive/store-exclusive instructions on ARM, and load-link/store-conditional instructions on Power.

Specifically, the memory model is intended to allow code generation as follows.

  • Every atomic operation in the program is assumed to be necessary.
  • Atomic operations are never rearranged with each other or with non-atomic operations.
  • Functions are always assumed to perform atomic operations.
  • Atomic operations are never implemented as read-modify-write operations on larger data, but as non-lock-free atomics if the platform does not have atomic operations of the appropriate size. (We already assume that every platform has normal memory access operations of every interesting size.)

Naive code generation uses these patterns:

  • Regular loads and stores compile to single load and store instructions.
  • Lock-free atomic loads and stores compile to a full (sequentially consistent) fence, a regular load or store, and a full fence.
  • Lock-free atomic read-modify-write accesses compile to a full fence, an atomic read-modify-write instruction sequence, and a full fence.
  • Non-lock-free atomics compile to a spinlock acquire, a full fence, a series of non-atomic load and store instructions, a full fence, and a spinlock release.

That mapping is correct so long as an atomic operation on an address range does not race with a non-atomic write or with an atomic operation of different size. However, that is all we need: the memory model effectively demotes the atomic operations involved in a race to non-atomic status. On the other hand, the naive mapping is quite strong: it allows atomic operations to be used as sequentially consistent fences, which the memory model does not actually guarantee.

A number of local improvements to those basic patterns are also intended to be legal:

  • There are obvious platform-dependent improvements that remove redundant fences. For example, on x86 the fences around lock-free atomic loads and stores can always be omitted except for the fence following a store, and no fence is needed for lock-free read-modify-write instructions, as these all use LOCK-prefixed instructions. On many platforms there are fences of several strengths, and weaker fences can be used in certain contexts without destroying sequential consistency.
  • Most modern platforms support lock-free atomics for all the data sizes required by ECMAScript atomics. Should non-lock-free atomics be needed, the fences surrounding the body of the atomic operation can usually be folded into the lock and unlock steps. The simplest solution for non-lock-free atomics is to have a single lock word per SharedArrayBuffer.
  • There are also more complicated platform-dependent local improvements, requiring some code analysis. For example, two back-to-back fences often have the same effect as a single fence, so if code is generated for two atomic operations in sequence, only a single fence need separate them. On x86, even a single fence separating atomic stores can be omitted, as the fence following a store is only needed to separate the store from a subsequent load.